Questions related to Solvents
Is any solvent can be used for removing STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER (SBR) from metals ?
Chemical solvents or removal procedures
I have been trying to perform TDDFT calculation for the Ga-phthalocyanine complex, and this calculation has been terminated with the following error message:
Largest valence mixing into a core orbital is 5.94D-01
Largest core mixing into a valence orbital is 3.87D-01
Excessive mixing of frozen core and valence orbitals.
Error termination via Lnk1e in /opt/g16/l801.exe at Sat Jul 24 14:46:19 2021.
Below there are data of my calculations:
the system: C68H48ClGaN8O4
basis set: 6-31G*
method: B3LYP or wB97XD
implicit solvent: THF
# of basis functions: 1345
charge and spin: 0 1
software: Gaussian 16, revision B.01
What could be the reason for this failure? Unfortunately, I could not find the answer by googling for it.
Thank you very much in advance!
I am carrying out centrifugation of exfoliated materials and a bit confused about the ways to change my procedure. My centrifuge system has been specifically optimised for water based materials (1200 rpm, 1 hr). Recently, I have started using a solvent which is about 8 times more viscous than water. Therefore, I want to know the possible changes in sonication I should be looking forward to.
1- How does centrifugation rpm and time depend on the viscosity as the material being exfoliated is same?
2- If I use only one bottle of liquid after exfoliation for sonication, can I use another bottle of water on the symmetrically opposite side or does it need to be the same solvent in the other bottle. Asking this as I don't want to use blank solvent just for centrifugation only. Further, if I use water, should it equal volume or equal weight compared to the first bottle?
Thanks in advance.
I am trying to quantify pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, analgesics, antidepressants, beta-blockers, hormones) in river sediments and have seen many various extraction techniques in different papers. I hope to use ultrasonic assisted extraction with different solvents. Any guidance on testing some methods and help on getting started would be great!
I am carrying out sonication of exfoliated materials and a bit confused about the ways to change my procedure. My sonication system has been specifically optimised for water based materials (1200 rpm, 1 hr). Recently, I have started using a solvent which is about 8 times more viscous than water. Therefore, I want to know the possible changes in sonication I should be looking forward to.
1- How does sonication rpm and time depend on the viscosity as the material being exfoliated is same?
2- If I use only one bottle of liquid after exfoliation for sonication, can I use another bottle of water on the symmetrically opposite side or does it need to be the same solvent in the other bottle. Asking this as I don't want to use blank solvent just for sonication. Further, if I use water, should it equal volume or equal weight compared to the first bottle?
Thanks in advance.
I read some papers about sol-gel method to make the ZnO thin film or seed layers. But I don't know what's the difference between using sol solvent and gel solvent to make the film?
I am working on the project on developing natural pesticide to control root-knot nematode. I am new in field of extraction. So, I wish to ask two questions:
1. Which method are commonly used to isolate solvent from plant extract using Soxhlet apparatus? Which is the best condition for remove n-hexane from extract?
2. What is the suitable solvent to dilute n-hexane extract?
I am appreciate for your kind recommendation. Thank you
My acetic acid solvent contains 1000 ppm acetic anhydride. I want to reduce it to 0 ppm. what process I should do? - I have tried atmospheric distillation but it was reduced to 600 ppm. Please suggest.
Hope everyone is happy and healthy :)
I am trying to use a compendial method for a sample that has the limitation of nominal concentration. Let say the compendial method has the concentration of 5 mg/ mL for testing impurity but mine would have Conc. of 0.4 mg/mL at maximum ...What do you recommend to increase S/N and sensitivity... I am trying 1. Narrower Column, 2. Smaller particle size ... I also extract the molecule from the samples by applying Min amount of solvent (Extractant) to have the highest possible Conc. in addition, I have tried a higher injection volume. Yet I still do not see some peaks as compendial method at higher concentration of 5 mg/mL
I am trying to use CB(8) and various gels as a part of my PhD project, and wish to do some NMR on it to confirm inclusion within it. But as it is quite insoluble in many solvents or they become a gel in other solvents, I do not know the best way to go about it. Any suggestions would be appreciated!
I Tried HPLC of the sample with the following set of parameters set:
Instrument: LC AD 20
Flow rate: 1ml/min
Temp: 30 degree
Sample Injection: 30 microliter
Protein analyte conc: 5mcg/ml, 10mcg/ml, 20mcg/ml, 30mcg/ml.
Time for running: 15min
Pressure: 4293 Psi
Solvent used: 30% Acetonytrile(ACN:D.H2O)
Prior to the use I washed the column with solvent for 1 hour and found that the peaks were not clear and same upon repetetion. Can anyone suggest how to perform HPLC for a short aminoacid sequence(11 aminoacids) structure.
· Use of superheated and supercritical water (SW) as a solvent for the ligand-free homogeneous C-C Coupling reactions.
· As the temperature rises, the dielectric constant of water drops significantly from 80.1 (20 °C) to 6 (374 °C) due to the decrease of hydrogen- bond strength.
· At elevated temperatures, water behaves much like diethylether.
· The corresponding yields were often lower than those reported in organic solvents, possibly due to the deactivation of the catalyst
· This drawback of ligandless coupling may be overcome by dispersing the catalytic material in an aqueous hydrotropic medium as it possesses surfactant like properties.
· Advantages :
· low catalyst loadings and rapid reaction times
· ease of reaction (no need for anaerobic conditions)
· Use of a nontoxic, nonflammable solvent.
· The methodology is currently being used in C-C coupling reactions.
UV measurement require the NPs to be well dispersed in the liquid. What kind of liquids/solvents must be used for the UV measurments such as Fe2O3.
I am looking for some review paper about different types of available/so far used solvents and their effect for a particular polymer. It could be for any polymer. Like for electrospinning of polymer A different types of x,y,z etc solvents have been used.
I wish to carry out an analysis of the constituents of PUR foams, by means of mass coupled gas chromatography; I am looking for information or recommendations on how and what solvent I can use to dissolve this foam and pass it through the chromatograph. Thanks
I can calculate the solubility of a polymer molecule of small molecular weight at different temperatures. How can I determine the solubility of the same polymer having a large molecular weight with the same result? Is there any conversion formula?
I am synthesizing metal complexes and now the compound bearing an organic part and inorganic metal part. But the metal complexes are very difficult to dissolve in organic solvents, I tried sonication, but it get dissolved partially in solvent DMSO. This issue will definitely affected the further characterization and application process. Any one please suggest a solution
I'd want to know if any problem could occur during the extraction, if ethanol is used as a solvent, as the microwave extractor is intended for solvent free extractions of volatile compounds. Is there any chance of excessive pressure building up in the system?
I observed high solvent content as a warning from the phaser when I solve my structure. What's the cause of the high solvent in protein crystal?
p.s. I calculated the Matthew probability of my crystal, and it predicted it as a 10mer. I did MR with phaser using 2 copies of my model. Could this be why?
I am trying to Tosylate c4 position of a 2',3',5' triprotected uridine to perform a substitution with an amine afterwards. All my attempts have been made in dry conditions. I've tried literature procedures with TsCl, DMAP and dry DIPEA and distilled DCM as solvent, then I tried DMAP and dry distilled Pyridine both as base and as solvent, then I shifted to TEA as base and distilled acetonitrile as solvent. I've tried stirring at 0°C, and then from 0°C to r.t. My starting material is clean. TsCl is working and properly stored, and same goes for DMAP, the bases and solvents are either purchased dry or have been distilled. I am unable to see any new spot in the reaction, even after 24h. Do any of you have experience in tosylating uridine c4? Are there structure-related issues that make difficult to Tosylates such a substrate? I've even tried with MsCl, which is more reactive, but without results. I can't use harsh basic conditions otherwise my uridine will be cleaved from the ribose, and I can't use acid conditions because of acid-sensitivity of my protecting groups (additionally, concerning the type of reaction, acidic conditions are of no use).
Thank you all
I currently store my 10 mg/mL mixed composition of POPC+PGPC (9:1 mol/mol) in a chloroform/methanol (9:1, v/v) solution. For the BLM experiment I require a working volume of ~40-50 uL of this solution which I dry into a lipid film and subsequently re-suspend in organic solvents. I use a decane : butyl alcohol mix for plain POPC, but I am having trouble with stabilizing my POPC+PGPC due to PGPC's highly oxidized nature.
So far I have tried (v/v) 50:1, 20:1, 10:1, 5:1, and 3:1 ratios of decane to butyl alcohol, and in each case my lipid precipitated into a milky substance from between 30 minutes to 1.5 hours.
I would greatly appreciate it if someone had any insight into how I could stabilize my lipids in organic solvent for an entire day? No papers on supported lipid bilayers/BLM have insight into working with oxidized lipids.
Thank you, in advance.
The metabolite that is extracted after evaporation of the solvent is purified using ethanol and ethyl acetate solvent by silica gel chromatography column.Is it possible that our carotenoids are oxidized at this distance, but all this is done in the dark?
Due to the high melting point of PEEK particles, this polymer is insoluble in many solvents except sulfuric acid. I just wants to know that which solvent can dissolve this polymer. Also, I am so interested to know that does anyone know that haw this polymer can dissolve in the suspension of sodium borohydride?
Gums I'm working on have approximately 60-80 polysaccharide by content but Im unable to precipitate or purify the gum by using methanol ethanol or even acetone. By acetone additon i just get slurry. But not complete separation or precipitate. But before adding solvent if I add calcium chloride and then followed by solvent I get change in media and precipitaes setting down in bottom. Should I proceed with that?
Dear colleagues, I would like to know if there is a mathematical equation or model to calculate the Soxhlet number of cycles by varying the following parameters:
- the type of solvent
- the volume of the extractor
- the temperature of the solvent heating
if yes how can we apply it? and how much uncertainty it has?
thank you so much
Up to now, our group have been using some mixture such as NaOH/water + ethanol, H2SO4/water + ethanol to service for this task. Follow up your opinion, what should the appropriate solvent or mixture use to remove them? Please give your reference resources to support. Thanks!
I'm trying to extract an antimicrobial compound (active against Staph aureus) from the organic layer of a liquid-liquid extraction. What are some potential organic solvents I could resuspend the layer in that are not toxic to bacterial cells (whether in general or at a certain percentage)? I have already tried 5% DMSO and 5% isopropyl alcohol with little luck.
Please can you help me to get the best HPLC protocol in the analysis of plant Extracts "Lepidium sativum”?
What solvent is used for HPLC?
Hello, I have modelled carbon capture modelling in Aspen Plus using MEA (25 wt/wt %) solvent and the model works well in the open cycle and for the convergence of recycling lean solvent stream, I have added the Make-up streams of water and MEA for the steady-state and also included balance blocks to calculate and update the Make-up streams of MEA and water but still, I am facing issues in the convergence of Absorber and Stripper columns. I would be grateful for any inputs from the community on how to deal with this error. Thanks a lot in advance.
We are extracting tannin from plant. The method says that after treating the plant sample with acetone/water (7:3; v/v), solutions are then concentrated, then the aqueous extracts were freeze-dried.
Sadly, we don't have freeze dryer. Can we just use rotary evaporator to remove the solvent, then put it in the freezer afterwards?
I am working with a reagent that is prone to hydrolysis for my chemical reaction. For that reason, one of the procedures that I am following recommends the use of freeze-pump-thaw cycles to degass the solvent. However, can I just use an anhydrous solvent instead of going through this process? Forgive me if this is a very obvious question.
I saw some papers with colorful solvents for some application. Especially, for wetteblity test. I also intertsed to do that. Where and what type days shall I search? Thanks
I am using metal oxide/Graphene composite and electrospinning it using PVA/Water polymeric medium. When I deposit on the aluminum foil the surface is uniform with fewer flakes. I am speculating that this may be due to the polymer/solvent non-uniform evaporation from the surface due to annealing (450C for 2 hours). Can anyone suggest something from their experience about the annealing of metal oxide electrospun film for robust adhesion and uniform deposition? is these flakes normal? or do I need to change the polymer or solvent?
thanks in advance.
I'm trying to improve the solubility of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in common vegetable oils (soybean/sunflower) in an liquid product to be used at 298 K. So far I've tried the following:
1) Formulate an emulsion (unstable in time and you need specialized equipment)
2) Reduce viscosity of the solvent by adding a cosolvent like a fatty acid (C18, no luck)
Knowing that the solvent has to be a food-grade oil, could you please suggest any ideas or recommendations to choose a suitable solvent for this application?
I need to perform GPC test for only PC component in PC/SEBS composite, but the SEBS component cannot be etched away.
So I want to know what solvent can dissolve polycarbonate (PC) but not SEBS or what solvent can dissolve SEBS but not PC?
Should the CV curve of the KCl solution be flat?
Or there is a problem with the rate on my measurement, which causes it to have a peak.
Reference electrode is Ag/Agcl
Scan Rate = 50 mV/s (step 5mV/Delay time 100ms)
Scan Range : -0.2V~0.6V
The solvent is distilled water.
Blue line is from -0.2V to 0.6V
Red line is from 0.6V to -0.2V
We are researching for extracting phenolic acid from calamansi and lemon using soxhlet extraction, we are finding studies about how to remove solvent to the extract from soxhlet extraction.
I want to incubate monocytes in RPMI medium with oleylamine (liquicd from sigma) to neutralize the surface charge on monocytes but everytime i add oleylamine to RPMI medium (even without cells) it make clumps and solidify everything. Is there anyone with similar problem and possible solutions? My other concern is to find a solvent which keeps still keeps oleylamine positive charge.
Thanks in advance
I've been synthesizing/formulating a polymer film using DMF as an organic solvent. I would like to evaporate this solvent (DMF) afterwards using a vacuum desiccator that is operational in an argon-filled glovebox. The goal is not to expose the polymer to air. For the extraction/evaporation of the solvent (DMF), I have a vacuum pump (with a solvent trap) that is connected to the desiccator while heating at 60 to 80 °C for several days.
The problem is that it has become kind of impossible to pump out the DMF so as to collect it in the solvent trap. It always ends up evaporating and condensing on the glass of the desiccator right on top of the petri dish that holds the solute+solvent.
Can some please suggest a possible work-around for this challenge? Below is an image of the vacuum desiccator.
I want to know how two carbide material will sandwich with each other. Let me make my question more elaborative. Let say, X2C and Y2C carbide materials are there, now I want to make X2C-CY2 (X2C2Y2) out of them. Is there any specific process to do the same like any chemical reaction with solvent (with heat treatment also) or any other procedure?
Any small suggestion is highly appreciable.
Thanks in advance.
We have a Thermo Finnigan Surveyor with PDA detector, AS and LC pump. Xcalibur 2.0.7 communicates to all the devices. When we try to run a single line sequence, e.g. injecting 20 uL sample from position A:1, the AS shows 'running' and PDA sector and LC pump show 'waiting for contact closure'. The pump is on and solvent is flowing through but the AS is not moving at all.
Under 'direct control' mode, we can move AS to any position or up and down. But when try to inject sample, the status of AS shows 'busy' but there is nothing happened.
Any idea about what is happening?
Thanks in advance.
I'm trying to dissolve a neat mixture of triglycerides (Sigma: 17810-1AMP-S) so that I can resuspend it in PBS at different concentrations for measurement using vibrational spectroscopy. What is the best protocol/solvent to achieve this with minimal to no interference from any other reagents?
Thanks in advance for all the help.
I am incorporating di/tripeptides into an anhydrous reaction carried out in either DMF or DMSO but have encountered solubility issues with the peptides I have used so far, being far more water-soluble. Which amino acids typically confer high solubility in either of these solvents?
I am starting with HPLC techniques and I find a problem: no peaks are detected!.
My mobile phase is a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile, I am using a C18 column to separate tetraterpenoids. I injected my sample, that is a standard in a solvent that is totally miscible with the mobile phase I am using. I injected 40 microliters and the sample concentration is 60 microliters per mililiter.
I don't know what I am doing badly.. Does anyone know why I have no peaks in my chromatrogram?
The flow rate is ok, I have read literature to set HPLC conditions and flow is working properly...column is totally new
Thank you a lot!
Lyophilized antibody powder was dissolved in 1X PBST, but no Western signal was produced. Can you tell if it is a problem with the original antibody or a problem with the solvent PBST? Aren't antibodies usually dissolved in PBS?
How is that possible if the solvent molecules 'cancel' or "diminish' out the field of the ion?
The solubility of my PVDF has decreased somehow and I believe this is due to changes in the molecular weight on the PVDF.
After 24 hours i'm finding my PVDF is not dissolving in room temperature mixture.
How do I increase solubility if I am not able to increase temperature as it will affect the characteristics of the end result PVDF after the process, I can't increase the shear rate of the mixing as this will increase the temperature too much.
Is trying to increase the solvent volume or concentration the only option to toggle with?
In the leaching process,Why does NaCl settle despite sieving?
How can we understand how much solvent the system needs?
And, how can enhance the mechanical strength in this process and find the optimum solvent?
Hello everybody. Do anyone here have a complete method for synthesis iodobutane using an SN2 Mechanism? The reagents are bromobutane, NaI and acetone as the aprotic solvent. I need the complete method, my professor wants the radio of reagentes and everything. I already have an ideia of what I have to do but would deeply aprecciate with someone could help me in this.
I try to run P NMR for a lignin extracted from biomass. 30 mg of lignin can be fully dissolve if I add 200 μl DMF and 50 μl pyridine mixture. But some solid will be precipitated out if I further add more than 200 μl CDCl3. However, the Bruker 300 MHz spectrophotometer we are using for the NMR can only give good result when more than 200 μl CDCl3 in 500 μl solvent. I'm wondering is there a way to solve this problem?
In nanoparticles synthesis the use of hydroalcohol solvent in soxhlet extraction is correct or not... and I need article reference for this.
I carried out a laurdan titration to test different solvent polarity. I was testing new filters in the lab. I added laurdan to water, and carried out a titration. The same was done with ethanol and isopropanol. I worked out the generalised polarisation. For water I obtained +0.099; for ethanol I obtained -0.742 and for isopropanol I obtained -0.617. My question is: how does laurdan behaves in the solvents to obtain these results? Am I getting these results, because laurdan forms micelles in water, and inverted micelles in ethanol and isopropanol? So the tail is exposed to the solvent? but how do I explain the GP values?
Hi Everyone. My research is focused on the development of paper-based biosensors. I am currently developing the hydrophilic channels by using a regular office inkjet printer. During experiments, I used different solvents for dissolving wax, but the printer's nozzle got choked due to the volatile nature of the solvent. Please suggest an alternative working methodology to create hydrophilic and hydrophobic channels through inkjet printer using wax-ink without getting nozzle choked.
Also, please suggest any other methods to create a wax-ink for the office inkjet printer. Currently, I am using EPSON L130 for printing purposes.
I have synthesized some organic substances for a specific biological activity. The final step involved the extraction of the substance using chloroform as a solvent. I left the extraction mixture in the hood for a while to let the chloroform evaporate. The NMR spectrum showed that chloroform was still found. I heated the substance at around 50C under vacuum in oven for 2 hours. No change was observed. I do not want to heat it at a higher temperature as the substance could be lost. I will be thankful for any suggestions.
The reaction of APTES with salicylaldehyde in ethanol leads to the formation of imine compound yellow solid which is mention in literature, but I am not getting yellow solid I don't know why?
when I kept a concentrated reaction mixture for a month I got solid but it's not soluble in ethanol or any other solvent.
I have to isolate steroids from chloroform extract by fractionation, so please advice me for selection of mobile phase.
Solubility of Solids (solute) in Liquids (solvent):
- In my specific case, the solid obtain plant tissue (trees).
- Liquids or used solvents typically obtain organics and inorganics compounds. I will be waiting respectfully for your powerful expectations regarding the previous question.
Use PMDA (anhydride) + MDI (isocyanate) + NMP (solvent) as the precursor. When CO2 is not produced, add PEG 200 (polyol) as a chain extender. After drying in the oven, the film will break in the oven!
I need to determine the amount of solid triclosan identified on a plastic patch.
Our lab's protocol can only perform the determination in water. The triclosan load in the water ranges between 0.01 mg/mL and 0.1mg/mL
Given the slow dissolution rate of triclosan in water, even with constant stirring, that amount of solid triclosan is unlikely to be 50% dissolved within 5 days and 100% with 10 days.
Bakhtiyor Karimov (October 25, 2016) in a memo suggested adding acetone to the water in a 0.05% (0.5mL acetone in 1L of water).
Will a 0.05% acetone in water solvent significantly accelerate the degradation of triclosan over 10 days and will it cause a bias in our lab's measurements?
Thank you for helping
How do I prepare a uniform azulene in MCH thin-films?
I tried various methods(drop-casting and spin-coating) to get the azulene sample to stick to the quartz glass but did not work including using a PMMA polymer, thorough cleaning of quartz glass slide with mixture of solvents in addition to plasma cleaning yet still I couldn't obtain a uniform azulene thin film.
Would you please give me some suggestions as to what I should do.
thank you so much for your response
I wanted to know if there is a solvent available that can dissolve poly(methylhydrosiloxane), but also can be evaporated to get back the same polymer afterwards?
Need to form uniform coating of ZnO with readily available ZnO powder on a substrate. So which liquid solvent I need to use and which procedure I need to follow to prepare such solution? Very new to field of chemistry. Please help
Which solvent is best to make a suspension of ZnTiO3 nanoparticles for FTO/ITO glass substrate coating to perform the electrochemical water splitting test.
I am extracting oil from seeds using the soxhlet apparatus but all the procedures that I have seen call for a rotatory evaporator as the last step to evaporate the hexane. I don't have a rotatory evaporator so I was looking for other valid and accurate ways to evaporate the solvent. Can I use a water bath?
I was able to exfoliate a thin film from a substrate using the adeshive tape method, now i requiere to make a small hole on the tape, so i can measure the luminicence of the film and not the procuded by the tape. Acethone seems to slowly dissolve the tape could any one recommed anothe solvent or process, thanks in advance
As weighing anthocyanin standard (keracyanin chloride; ACN STD) is very difficult and risky, the plan is to dissolve ACN STD with analytical solvent which is not soluble with water or alcohol (Information source: https://www.scbt.com/p/keracyanin-chloride-18719-76-1#:~:text=In%20other%20studies%2C%20Keracyanin%20chloride,through%20inhibition%20of%20α-glucosidase.&text=Solubility%20%3A,Soluble%20in%20water%2C%20and%20alcohol.); thus, what solvent is suitable for dissolving ACN STD without contaminating it?
After that, the desiccant is used to dry analytical solvent; thus, what desiccant is suitable without contaminating ACN STD?
Link of research papers or video from official source will be helpful, but it's optional.
This question is related to 'How to transfer ACN STD correctly?' previously, and a video demo can be watched for better understanding.
My drugs are insoluble in water and 5% alcohol, 5% DMSO as well. It fully dissolves in ethyl acetate however it is toxic for cells.
Hi, I'm looking for some materials with small molecular weight (~ hundreds g/mol) that are not dissolved in cyclohexane but dissolved in toluene or other organic solvents.
If you know any of them, please help me.
PET does not allow much thermal space to play with annealing and can be dissolved by very strong organic solvents such as DMF and DMSO. What alternative solvents that won't dissolve plastics and don't require much annealing can be used instead? I only know of MA/CH3CN solution.
My Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles are synthesized in the presence of sulfate (SO4-) ions.
I see S impurity in my samples even after thorough washing with water.
I suspect that Sulphate ions adhere to the nanoparticles' surface as a ligand and they need more than just washing with water to be removed.
I am looking for a solvent that can help the removal of sulfate without changing the characteristics of my nanoparticles.
#sulphate #ligand #aluminum #hydroxide #nanoparticle #sulphur
I want to uniformly disperse dried zirconia nanoparticles in any appropriate solvent.
Simply adding into deionized water under stirring and ultrasonication is not working.
The manual for Sephadex LH-20 says this: "Resuspend and pour the media slurry into the column in one continuous motion. Fill the reservoir to the top with buffer."
However, I saw another procedure which says: "Fill the column reservoir to the top with solvent."
Does packing this include buffer or just solvent?
I have obtained 4 organic exteacts of different solvents i.e. hexane extract, ethylacetate extact, methanol extract and choloroform extract from a ant species.
We want to sterilize Mg samples to test for cytotoxicity in cell culture by sonicating the samples in ethanol, IPA, and ddH2O, but we do not own a blast-proof sonicator. I have found alternative protocols for sonicating samples in alcohol solvents but no official publications. Are there any established methodologies for sonicating materials like our Mg coupons in alcohol without having to purchase a blast-proof sonicator? We are using a Bransonic Ultrasonic Bath for this assay.
I'm looking for a PES solution with alternative solvent for injection treatments in oilfield.