Questions related to Soil Analysis
For example, total acidity decreased from 1.15 to 0.8 cmol∙kg-1 after 30 days and even less after 60 and 90 days. Exchangeable Al content dropped from 1.02 to 0.4-0.6 cmol∙kg-1 during incubation, that is more than 50%. At the same time, exchangeable H demonstrated 2-3-fold increase. CEC showed about 25% decrease.
I mean, I can use XRD to determine the crystal structure of minerals/identify them and see if they're changed during an experiment, and I can use SEM to 'see' the surface of a mineral or soil sample. But as far as I can tell neither of these techniques is very good for identifying or 'visualizing' organic molecules/material sorbed or otherwise associated with the material.
I am doing column experiments with organic material, and I can measure what's going in and what's coming out, but I am not sure how to 'see' or characterize what is retained in the soil. Is there a method for doing so? (I am looking for one besides a solvent extraction+characterization; I am hoping for something that allows me to see not just what is in the soil but how it's in the soil)
Any suggestions would be appreciated.
Hello everyone, I have conducted a research on topic assessment of soil fertility and nutrient status under different cropping system. there are almost four cropping system. 25 soil samples from each cropping system was taken. CV value of my parameters like total N content, available P , Available K, soil organic matter content is more than 30. How can i reduce them ? I am looking for effective feedbacks from you all. Thank you.
Now a days many techniques are available on crop nutrition such as soil testing, plant testing, foliar diagnosis, soil test crop response method and colour chart method etc. Though many number of methods are available to diagnose deficiency or toxicity of nutrients either in soil or on crop plants , identification of type and level of nutrient deficiency or toxicity is difficult for recommending nutrient application. In this connection, discussion on soil mineral resource identification, nutrient release from the particular mineral and quantity of elements release my give better idea on nutrient management for agri / horti /forestry crops especially in organic agriculture.
I am looking for the average trace element concentrations in agricultural soils around the world. Do you know of a good place to start?
Thank you all immensely,
Prolific Earth Sciences developed and markets microBIOMETER a rapid test for microbial biomass (MB) and fungal to bacterial ratio which we have shown correlated r = 0.94 with CFE. We want to fund an independent University study. That can be published. The study must include at least 50 agricultural soil samples that range from high MB to low MB and cover a wide variety of soil types. [email protected]
I conducted potential nitrous oxide emission assessment from soil samples following the method previously used by Zhong et al 2018. The samples were incubated for 48 hours, taking gas samples at 0, 24 and 48 hours respectively.
I have read the N2O concentrations from the gas samples collected using GC, and this data is available. Also, available is the soil-dry weight of the soil samples used in the assessment.
I feel somehow stuck at the procedure for final calculation of the potential N2O production using the available concentration readings from the GC.
Has anyone previously undertaken such, or a similar study, and can quickly unstuck me?
How do i proceed to determine the final N2O emitted from the soil samples ?
Thanks in advance
Please I am trying to determine the exact amount of biochar that was added to each pot. Please kindly help me check if my calculation is right.
Biochar applied at 20 t -ha−1
Height of pot = 20cm
1 hm = 10000 meter square
Assuming density soil bulk density of 1.2 g/cm3
Volume = 10000 m2 x (20cm x 10-2) = 2.0 x 103m3
m = p X v
m = 1.2 g/cm3 x (2.0 x 103 x 1 x 106) cm3
m = 2.4 x 109
m = 2.8 x 106 kg
So for 20 t per ha biochar
Biochar = 20 t x 1 / (2.8 x 106 kg/ha) x 106 g
Biochar = 7.14 g/kg
So for 5 kg of soil Biochar added was = 7.14 x 5 =35.7g
Please if my calculations are not right can you kindly assist with the calculations.
I wonder if it is possible to find natural soil carbonates (calcite, dolomite, etc.), not coming from liming, in soils naturally having a low pH (4-5.5).
Is it possible to find these mineral forms of C in acidic tropical soils?
I am asking because while measuring both total C and inorganic C (after acid dissolution) of tropical soil samples from Indonesia with an Elementar, I sometimes get a gap between the two measurements.
Sometimes the gap is positive (total C > organic C), and other times the gap is negative (organic C > total C !?). Generally, total C is equal to organic C, meaning most samples do not show these confusing 2-way gaps, and suggest the absence of inorganic forms of C.
In both cases, I wonder if discrepancies are just technical (noise), or if the gaps between samples are due to the natural variability of my samples, or in some cases, there could be some carbonates present in those soils (which have a relatively low pH of 4-5).
The question is about how smallholder farmers can have soil sampling and testing services at reduced or affordable costs
Plant does not eat soil but take soil water, hence with the advent of recent technologies, the soil scientist should adopt soil water analysis methodology instead of dried soil analysis.
Actually I found in previous research papers that both Cr forms i.e. trivalent and hexavalent are interconvertible. So I want to know the exact amount of both the forms of Cr in soil sample in which I have supplied only hexavalent Cr. It will help me to understand the mechanism behind toxic behavior of both the forms.
I am preparing a metagenomics experiment from the soil sample. I will use Oxford Nanopore technology, which has only limited throughput (approx. 8 GB), so I need to discard all eukaryotic cells before the sequencing (because their genomes are really large, and would saturate the device quickly). So I am interested in the simple and reliable method, how to obtain only the prokaryotic and viral species. Is it a good idea to use some syringe filters? E.g. with the pore size 1 micron? So the eukaryotic cells will be stuck on the filter surface, and bacteria, archaea, and viruses will go through?
Thanks for all suggestions,
do you know about any commercial service which offers CryoMilling?
We have a few samples of plastics (including e.g. PET) and soils, which we need to cryomill, but since we do not need this service regularly, there is not so useful for us to buy a cryomill.
Thanks in advance for suggestions,
As a part of my doctoral research, I am testing soil samples for multiple elements (such as P, N, etc.). Because of COVID, I was not able to immediately test samples gathered in the field in the fall of 2020; instead, these samples have remained frozen. My question is - can I still get these samples tested, or has too much time passed? Another consideration is that the soil was quite wet when frozen, and large ice crystals have developed.
I'm returning to the field shortly, and will able to gather more samples, but ideally I would love to run these as well! Any help is appreciated.
Dear all, I collected soil samples for estimating organic carbon. we heated the soil through combustion. Got lab results. I'm advised to use 'ginostart' or 'R' methods to further analyze lab results into meaningful results in line with the research study. Kindly help me with how to use Ginostart, and R methods. A link/explanations are all welcome.
We recently adquired a Digiprep block digestion system in our lab and I wonder if it can be used for highly-carbonated soils decarbonization. I have been looking for similar protocols but I had no results.
Thanks in advance and kind regards.
Layla M. San Emeterio
Generally forest ecosystems are often developed on poorly fertile soils where the plant available pools of nutrient cations are frequently very low, but the content of available potassium for a natural terrestrial forest stand shows a very high value of 671.89 kg/ha using the standard method for the soil chemical analysis, is it natural for the soils of a terrestrial forest patch?
I am growing bacteria from soil samples I obtained from mine tailings. I spread the samples on some nutrient, luria and tryptic soy agar plates. But, some of the colonies are growing just beneath the surface of the agar. Would it be ok if I just mash the agar to get to the colony and subculture that? I'm not sure how to do it otherwise.
Collected soil samples may be stored for a certain duration before they are tested in the laboratory. I would like to know if this storage time affects the test results of various parameters of soil.
Usually i had extracted DNA from soil sample using power soil Qigen kit and got upto 700 ng/ul of DNA.
I do have a soil sample which has pH of 2.3 higlhiy acidic and one with 12.3 which is highly alkaline
i performed same extraction and got DNA only 3-5 ng/ul... that is not suitable for my downstream tests.
Can some one suggested what to do to increase yield of DNA from such sample.
Samples were prepared in 2019 as follows. Each soil sample prepared of mass approximately equal to 0.500g was a added to 9ml of HCL (35-37%) and 3ml of HNO3 (70%). The samples were digested. Kindly assist if the samples would give give me same results in March 2021 as the results of November 2019. Argon was used in 2019, but in 2021 Helium (KED) was used.
Also is there a method/formula to correct for K-40 interferences by argon species????
I would like to seek your expert opinions on the optimal storage conditions for sediment/soil samples for microbial community analysis. How's your experience with -20C, 4C, and even room temperature and do they make a big difference? Thank you very much.
For the purpose of determining water dispersible colloids (WDC) and colloidal phosphorus, can we use the soil samples that have been air-dried and sieved at 2 mm or should we use only the fresh field soil samples?
I'm trying to measure the physical and hydrological properties of organic substrate media.
Currently, I'm referring The book Soil sampling and Methods of Analysis by Carter and Gregorich. (Chapter 68)
Measurement of bulk density
The method recommends the substrates in the cores to be saturated and drained on a tension table at -1KPa. My question is if we don't have a pressure plate, can we let the cores drain by gravitation for a specific duration (1-2 hours) and take it as the saturation point?
And to obtain bulk density, air-filled porosity, water-filled porosity at saturation at that point?
Measurement of water holding capacity
Water retention curve is graphed as water content against the tension. Instead of tension, can we graph it against time? after letting the core samples drain from the bottom while closing the top of the core? (picture attached)
Can you please mention if there are any standardized procedures/ papers related to the question? Thank you very much.
Our method consists of a potentiometric titration of a soil plus an electrolyte solution (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 M KCl). Soil is stabilised during 1 hour and then HCl or NaOH is added in order to modify pH to 4.0 or 12.0 respectively. PZC should be found in the intersection of the three curves, but we are getting unexpected results. Could you recommend another method or a modification of the one I am performing. Thank you very much.
Soil microphology is all the efforts that are made to study soils or soil samples, but in a microscopic or microscopic field.
In the study, regular and polarized microscopes
I want to test the chloride ion concentration in the soil sample where I am conducting a research, but I cannot find a procedure to proceed. Thanks in advance!
I was testing soil samples for sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum and noticed that every once in a while there are these strange 'jumps' in my curves. I repeated the test three times, the sample is from the same test tube, but one of the curves looks weird despite being undeniably positive like the rest. I included two screenshots, one of the target fluorescence signal and one of the respective control where the suspicious curve also shows a bump although a small one.
I'm trying to validate this method and am at a loss as to why this happens or how to prevent it. Has anyone ever seen something like it?
My samples are very high in organic matter, and even small amounts of H2O2 cause the samples to foam up 4-5 times the beaker volume, spilling onto the lab bench. Is there anything that can be done to manage this, other than adding smaller volumes of H2O2 or digesting smaller soil samples?
1. Please anyone tell me if I analyse my soil nitrogen through CHNS analyser and I get my reading in N% and according to the calculation if my reading is 0.07% then:
N Kg/hectare = 0.07*10000*2.24= 1568 kg/hectare which is too high in field soil sample.
So, please anyone tell what is the exact formula to convert field soil N% into kg/hectare if the sample was analysed through CHNS analyser.
It is well known that micronutrients are equally important for plant growth and development, but they are required by plants in small quantities. If they are taken in excess amount, especially in soils having deficiency of major nutrients, they are harmful to plants. If micronutrients are applied in excess amount, they may produce a harmful level in soils, which may be more difficult to correct than a deficiency. Their deficiency can be determined bot by plant and soil tests. So, is that necessary to conduct an experiment to determine an appropriate rate or amount for micro-nutrients?
I wonder if someone would share experience with building open-top chambers for surface heating of soil. My main question is what material can be used to build them? I found researchers using Sun-Lite HP panels and polycarbonate panels. The former seems to be used more often, but the latter seems to be more readily available.
Any input is appreciated!
I have soil samples that have been frozen for a while and I need to re-acclimate them for a series of analyses that require incubation at 25C. I have been looking for laboratory methods but seem to not find any or I am using the wrong terms "thawing methods".
How can I do this in a lab setting? I have an oven and incubator.
I have 1851 soil samples data on pH covering a study area of 7482sq.km in northern Ghana and I am using 52 environmental long-term average variables (Relief, Climate, MODIS Reflectances and derived products) to fit a model in order to explain the variability for pH prediction. So far, all models tested have shown low explained variance and sometimes even gives negative.
How may I improve the Explained Variance below?
Kindly see attached, the spatial distribution of points, and metadata excel file showing details about the covariates used.
Below is the summary of my models explained variance.
Multiple Linear Regression: 0.03
Step-wise Multiple Linear Regression: 0.04
ExtremeGradient Boosting: 0.03
Support Vector Machines with Polynomial Kernel: 0.03
Additional information about the sample data
- Avg. distance between two sample points using nearest neighbor analysis: 2551.29m
- Data source: Student research data
- Sampling method: Grid/Management Zone Hybrid Soil Sampling method. The grid size is 2-4sq.km, management zones are subdivisions within the grid.
My assessment so far
- Removed spatial outliers
- Removed value outliers
- Normality check was ok (please see attached)
- Variography shows a spatial structure (please see attached)
- Tried Recursive Feature Elimination to reduce the dimensionality but did not show any improvement
- Tried reducing dimensionality by removing highly correlated covariates at a threshold of 0.75
I would be most grateful for insights into any techniques that could help improve the model explained variance.
I am trying to figure out how to do an extraction for soil microorganisms for further metabolomic analyses. I am only interested in the microbiota part, so I would like to discard any organic matter present in the samples.
Do you know any useful method for that? Any suggestions that could help me?
Thanks for your help!
We are doing the prediction of soil nutrients using spectral information by applying machine learning models. More than 300 soil samples were used from one district for analysis. We got the support vector machine model as best with less RMSE. Is it the same devolved model that holds good for other district soil nutrient prediction?
I am looking to work on clays in my soil samples, So I need to extract them first.
I know that I should first remove all the bending agents that make the clay sheets stay connected like ( Carbonates, Organic Matter ...) fur this purpose I have to attack the soil by Hcl 5N and H2O2;;, but I need The procedure any help, please. Thanks in advance
Almost all the literature shows that the vertical distributions of soil organic carbon (SOC) & available nitrogen (N) is found decreasing with increased value of bulk density with respect to depth and all those values show uniformity in each layer of 20 cm and up to 1m depth, increasing or decreasing of such values are uniformly distributed for the soil samples found in the literature, is that uniformity maintained at every where, soil layer of the mother earth is so unique and maintain such identical uniformity, though I am waiting for the report for the values of distribution of these chemical parameters from the soil test laboratory, if the obtained values are uniformly distributed with depth, it will be really unique and identical.
Sediment is relatively younger than the soil in the depositional environment as the sediments are consequence of the accretion of particles transported either by waters or by winds, whereas, soil profile is stable lacking any sort of movement. Soil profile is developed with time span which is a stable one, but the movement of the sediment particles developed those soil profiles in so many physiographic set up, are they (soils and Sediments) differed chemically, do they possess different chemical environment?
I am working on 16S rRNA sequences in soil and looking for best reference data base. Which one is best one greengene or RDP or SILVA or NCBI
In one of my experiments, I am assessing root biomass from soil cores, in which I have the root dry weight data, the core parameters, and the respective bulk density and soil moisture values. I am confused during the cumulative measurement of root weight per unit soil surface, from the dry weight of roots collected on the sieve combinations. For calculating the root density, it is straightforward (root dry weight/ soil volume), but I am unable to comprehend the term "per unit soil surface"? Am I missing something "obvious" term in the calculations?
As this is a trivial measurement, manuscripts tend to skip the details and directly report the results. To search for hints, I tried to look into older journals, where they divided the total dry weight with the area under consideration (attached the source). What area should I consider, surface area, or the crossectional area of the soil core, or something else for the root biomass calculations, and why?
Thank you, and have a great day!
I have ion chromatgrahy by which different type of cation and anion can be determined . kjeldal nitrogen arrangement is also available but it is not convenient to me rather than ion chromatography. my question is if i test soil sample to determine nitrate instead of total nitrogen. it would be recomanded by guideline or not ?
Bulk density of a forest soil sample in a community forest created under social forestry scheme in the district of Nadia, West Bengal is obtained as 0.81 gm/ cubic centimetre, comparatively too low from the other samples of the same forest stands collected from 500 meters distance, visibly the sample is silty in nature, and the implanted trees of the said community forest are mostly of teak categories, the forest stood in the alluvial plains of the lower Gangetic deltaic set up, is the obtained value of bulk density normal for the physical nature of the soils of the forest floors?
I am currently doing my final year project on Geochemical analysis of peat samples. I will be looking at parameters such as major and trace elements plus anions and cations. Should i take samples from the surface (0-5cm) or take deeper samples using auger sampler?
Thank you for your time.
Many researchers have given the values of OMC and MDD for bentonite based buffer materials corresponding to heavy compaction (higher compaction energy).
It is possible to determine ammonium and nitrate concentration on 2M KCl extracts by HPIC (Ion Chromatography)?
Can you suggest me some analytical protocol (or manuscript) to determine ammonium and nitrate by HPIC on 2M KCl soil extracts?
Thanks in advance.
I would like to amply the lignin-degrading gene (i.e., LigX, LigY, LigZ, and LigW) from different types of soil. I have tried to find literature, but unfortunately, there are no articles available where they have quantified those genes from soil samples. There are some cloning/mutagenesis studies available where they amplified those genes and inserted them into E.Coli, but we are yet not successful amply from soil samples. Does anyone have an idea or someone working with ligning-degrading genes quantification? We are interested to quantify those genes from bacteria only.
Thank you and really appreciate your suggestions.
I am currently trying to determine rare earth and heavy metal concentration via ICP - OES. I have been preparing soil samples via digestion using solution B, however results obtained were illogical as the concentration of REE and heavy metal were too high to be considered as trace. Any suggestion on how to obtain more accurate results.
I recently demonstrated an industrial sized horizontal centrifuge at a food manufacturing plant on their waste coming from their wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP plant manager now wants to know what the BOD coming from the centrate off the centrifuge, back to the WWTP would be. We did not measure BOD or COD at the time but only total suspended solids (TSS mg/l) in the centrate going back to the WWTP. Is there a way to maybe correlate the BOD from the information gathered from the influent coming from the manufacturing side to the WWTP, if the TSS and BOD were recorded, to our centrate TSS?
The fact that there are no proper laboratory equipments devised till date for direct tensile testing of soil, I'm looking for a simple indirect procedure that would help in determining tensile strength of soil samples reasonably well.
Your suggestions are solicited.
I have tried using PowerSoil Pro kit from Qiagen with slight modifications- incubating at 65 degree for 10 mins after adding solution CD1, increasing the number of washes with CD5 to 3 times and drying the tube for 15mins after washing.
The content obtained for the C & N in the soil samples of the forest floors is increased this time and in 2020 is 5 times more than that of the C & N obtained in 2008, simultaneously the same forest stands in four districts is increased by areas observed in the India State of Forest Report 2019, not only that the forest canopy is much lush green in comparison to 2008, is this change be considered as the evidence of the climate change, though the time span of only 12 years is very short for interpretation of the evidence of the climate change.
I'm working with a set of soil analyses obtained from an external laboratory.
Studying the results, I am highly confident that one of the analyses gave incorrect results because the values are extremely unlikely (in total disagreement with what is normally naturally occurring).
Besides, I have conducted additional analyses to triple-check this analysis.
The results I have obtained contradict, as I expected, the anomalous data.
The problem is, that the method I used is not the same as the initial method (unavailable at my lab), but is supposed to measure the same variable.
Now that it is time to write a research article, what would you do to overcome this problem?
Should I explain that for this particular analysis, results were abnormal and were not considered further?
Should it be done early in the results section, or later in the discussion section?
How have you dealt with unexpected/erroneous data with your research, when you cannot repeat the same analysis?
Will a journal accept to publish results which include one bad apple, while the rest of the basket is fine?
Suppose we need to develop a new method for routine soil test (a reference one already exist).
After developing the new one, we found that the two methods are highly correlated (for example, R2=0.996). However, the difference between the two methods are large, and the correlation line is much deviated from the 1:1 line (see figure attached). Can this new method be used as a replacement of the reference method ?. Thanks
This is wondering me as how the process of soil sampling for both NH4 and NO3 ? what was the reason to not analyze fresh soil samples for both parameters ? the dry soil sample change the state of both forms of N during storage.
Reviewer ask me this question?
Dear colleagues, I am trying to simulate a strip foundation on a cohesionless soil with a friction angle of 30 degrees. However, I obtain convergence problems. I am using a geostatic step.
The error in the simulation states:
Time increment required is less than the minimum specified
Too many attempts made for this increment
I am new modelling soils in Abaqus, therefore, I'm not sure if I'm ignoring some basic concepts or if there is something I missed when inputting the soil parameters.
Thanks in advance
After soil chemical analysis, obtained result for the content of organic carbon and nitrogen in kg/ha shows 0.00, whereas potassium content is 55.20 kg/ha for a surface soil sample collected in the Panagarh forest patches under the Bardhaman Forest Division of West Bengal, the soil was collected in the depth of 15 cm and the bulk density of the soil is 1.3 gm/cubic cm, visibly the sampled soil is the admixture of Alfisol and lateritic combination, is it possible for the soil sampled in the natural forests lacking both organic carbon and nitrogen, though the nature of forest vegetation is quite normal in the sampling spot?
I would like to extract gDNA for soil to do NGS. We have the QIAGEN Powersoil kit. I did it twice now. First, according the kit instruction : concentration = 10 ng/uL, 260/280 = 1.4, 260/230 = 0.7. And the second time, I changed the lysis step by vortexing for a longer period and I heated the elution buffer at 50C as ssen on other discussion but my results are still not that good : concentration = 10 ng/uL, 260/280 = 1.8, 260/230 = 0.8.
Do you maybe have an idea on how I can improve my ration to send the sample for NGS?
Thank you !!
We have to determine easily-extractable glomalin (EEG) and total glomalin (TG) from soil samples, but we have found various contradicting methods and calculations. Is there a trusted method that can be used to yield more consistent and trusted results?
Thank you in advance for your kind assistance.
There are several methodologies and quality publications available regarding on soil quality index but they have not considered the soil biochemical properties.
Please let me know the scientific reason.
If we can consider the biochemical properties then what will be the criteria of indexing?
The radon concentrations in soil samples measured by registrant alpha-emitting radon (222Rn) by using (CR-39) track detector, The uranium concentrations in soil samples measured by using register at fission fragments tracks in (CR-39) track detector that caused by the bombardment of (U) with thermal neutrons from (241 Am-Be) neutron source that has flux of (5 ×103 n cm-2 s-1).
I am lay in this subject. Is DNA sequencing the best way to identify the different types of soil bacteria present in soil samples? Ideally, I'd like to find a technique that allows me to identify all different types of bacteria (from those that could be identified) present in a given soil sample. Thanks.
As soil quality represent it's "fitness to use" or "capacity of soil to function to sustain productivity maintaining environmental quality and improved health".
What are the basic components which must be included while developing the soil quality index?
Minimum set of data required for SQI ?
Is it necessary to rotate all the components ?
There is a growing interest in developing means of early detection of crop nutrient deficiencies. It has held that by the time a deficiency shows up in a soil sample, the crop is already under stress. Does crop sap analysis help to resolve this information gap? If so, how can we expand the use of this from high margin specialty crops to commodity crops?
There are three primary areas of ground movement towards a pressurised TBM: at the face, along the shield skin and at the tail void -(In the attached figure).
Can the maximum surface Settelment of the tunnel Longitudinal Cross section due to the displacement of the tunnel face can be added with the Transverse cross-section surface Settelment and introduced as the final surface Settelment? in 2D model-numerical method.?
But in the transverse two-dimensional method, we cannot get Settlements dou to face pressure induced by tunnel advanc.
I was going to get the Settlements dou to face pressure from the longitudinal 2D model and add it to the other Settlements Caused by other factors
In the longitudinal section of the tunnel, details and geometries and conditions have been implemented so that only the displacement caused by the face pressure is created and that the shield cone and mortar injection and consolidation are not modeled.
so only max surface settelment in longitudinal cross cestion is occurred due to face pressure It is capable of adding with max surface settelment in transverse cross sestion due to injection pressure and shield cone?
I simulated the shield driven-tunnel by FLAC 2D, in which step of numerical model must be applying the traffic loads of ground surface (20 Kpa)? the traffic loads of ground surface change along day and night
1. elastic initial equilibrium.
2. elastic-plastic initial equilibrium.
3. Simultaneous with excavation and pre-installation lining.
*in which step influence the traffic loads is real? (interaction with ground above tunnel)
I have found some tools which would be inserted to the soil, but I'm not sure about its accuracy. Can anybody suggest inexpensive, easy-to-use, accurate soil testing tools/kits?
analysis of soil samples have shown that in addition to lead and zinc, manganese is also present
How can we homemade measure the pH from a soil sample? I have two soil samples and I'm looking forward to knowing how can I measure the pH without technologies.
"pH is determined by measuring the hydrogen ion activity in an aqueous solution. A glass electrode, calibrated against a pH standard is used to do this. A sub-sample of soil is mixed with water or CaCl2 at a ratio of 1 part soil to 5 parts liquid and the pH of the suspension is measured after 1 hour shaking".
I am air drying soil samples of a number of soil types to be used to produce a soil moisture curve for the callibration of soil moisture sensors to the diffrent soil types. Once the soil is relativley dry I will rewet samples to produce a gradient of samples from dry to saturated to get a soil moisture curve for each of the soil types. Sensor readings will be compared to lab measurments of soil moisture content. To speed up theair drying process, I was thinking of drying the samples in an oven.
My question is , at what temperature should I dry the soil in the oven without causing the soil to develope hydrophobic properties?
Thanks in advance,
I am trying to understand if there is a relationship between the angle of internal friction of soils and the angle at which the stress is distributed within the soil if a vertical force (via a footing) is applied at the surface.
I have been trying to isolate Bacillus from soil sample. I m not able to identify the Bacillus in the mass. I need suggestions to identify the Bacillus.