Questions related to Synthesis
What units of measurement should be used to compare the activity of ammonia synthesis catalysts: mmolNH3∙gcat-1∙h-1 or molNH3∙gRu-1∙h-1 or TOF/ s-1?
I need links to articles where this issue has been well discussed.
I just want to know if you have experienced that your piperidine + DMF solution, for deprotection during peptide synthesis, crystallizes when not in use? Have you identified possible factors that contribute to this issue, and how did you address this problem(s).
Hoping for your insightful thoughts.
I'm trying to synthesize a Fe-based metal organic framework but I got something that i guess is Fe3O4, with comparison through pxrd, ftir, and being magnetic of course,
has anyone similar experience??
I have synthesized Polyelectrolyte complex of Chitosan (75% DDA) with SDS, and now want to know the molecular weight of monomeric unit of chitosan SDS complex for further chemical modification.
For chitosan SDS complex synthesis i have taken 161 as the molecular weight of monomeric unit of chitosan and the chitosan SDS complex formed in 1:1 stoichiometry.
How i proceed now with Chitosan SDS complex for further modification????
Au(III)Cl3 + Ag(I)TFSI in methanol -> Au(III)TFSI3 + AgCl (s)
and then, I will remove AgCl precipitates by filtration..
If this is impossible, what solvent or what method should I use?
(because HAuCl4 can be produced, water cannot be used, maybe)
I am recently making 2D semiconductor materials by CVD synthesis, and I found some problems recently.
In my case, it is very easy to make dozens of products on silicon wafer, most of them are nice and thin crystals.
However, all of it disappeared recently. By using the same techniques, same parameters and same amount of precursors, the results on wafers are mostly clean surfaces, only few and small domains of crystals.
But changing the substrate to mica, the results are as good as before, we got very dense and fine crystals.
Is there any kind of problem that may cause this situation?
Any suggestions on selection of suitable insulating substrate, matching lattice parameters for graphene synthesis, as an alternative to usual transition metal substrates (e.g., copper, nickel etc.).
I have heard, that larger the ligands, more better the core shell structures due to the packing of the which in turn results in a decrease in the density of ligands on the surface of the NP.
Is is true? How branching affects the formation of core shell?
Trying to improve a process I have been given. The chloro analogue is far more readily available and I would prefer to use that to couple with my acetylene.
I am having trouble with a certain siloxane-based polymer. The Si-H bond on each end seems to be too reactive to vinyl groups, which is what I do not want in one of the reaction steps. Is it possible to use an end-capping agent to stop the Si-H from reacting, but is also able to be removed ie 'deprotected'? If so, what materials are possible? I know there are plenty of end-capping agents for the Si-H, but I cant seem to find something that could be efficiently removed. Thank you.
I carried out the VSM analysis for synthesized nanoparticles. Could you please guide me how can I calculate the particles size with results of VSM analysis? And what is the level of accuracy of this method?
Hi all, I need to cleave the ester in Ethyl 2-amino-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate to make the carboxylic acid and retrieve the product from solution to use in downstream applications of linking to amines via reductive amination using sodium cyanoborohydrde.
I tried to cleave the ester with 2M equivalents of KOH in 5:1 MeOH:H2O for 1H at 40C. After 1H, i added 20mL H2O to quench and then tried to precipitate my newly made acid by dropping pH to 1, however nothing precipitated out. I then tried to see if any of my product was unreacted by mixing with diethyl ether to see if any of the light brown color would transfer to the ether layer, but again, nothing happened, the ether layer is completely clear. I guess I should just boil off some water and see if it starts to precipitate out? Im not much of a chemist so I just wanted to make sure I havent made any terrible assumptions along the way...
I used 150 g of L-lactide (liquid, stored in a fridge at 2-4 degr.C), 0,8 g of Sn(Oct)2 as a catalyst. I mixed L-lactide and Sn(Oct)2 in a glass, than placed the glass into an oven at 140 degr.C for 2 hours. There is no any stirring tool in my lab, so I used my own hands and a glass stick (every 5-10 minutes I stirred the liquid by the glass stick). When I got the glass from the oven and waited for 1 hour, nothing changed. It was a liquid. I wanted to get hard PLLA and do mechanical experiments, but it is a liquid... What did I wrong?
My lab is wanting to get recommendations for trusted companies that perform custom synthesis of organic molecules. Thank you so much!
My research direction is to modify existing molecular beacons but I cannot seem to get the solid phase synthesis of the quencher-free molecular beacon with flurophore attached at the loop region. It appears they are lots of work on this but the synthesis is not clear. I need help on whether the fluorophore is attached before the stem region or after the stem region.
It may be in your education and experience that you deal with the structure of organic medicines. Which combination do you think is most common in organic medicine?
For example, many drugs have carboxylic acid in their structure. In your opinion, which compounds play an important role in the structure of the largest number of drugs?
I am fabricating a polymer by the bulk free-radical process. The monomers are very sensitive to the 60 degree centigrade. How can I have free radical polymerization by Azo initiators from 25 to 40 degree centigrade?
what are common strategies for the synthesis of Nanoliposome
containing Essential Oil and investigation of their Physicochemical Characteristics?
I'm working on generative models for medical image synthesis, specifically GANs for CT image synthesis. What are the evaluation metrics best suited for evaluating a proposed model?
I am doing research on the synthesis of paracetamol. I am preparing acetic anhydride solution with a few drops a sulfuric acid and wish to measure the pH of this solution. However my pH meter keeps giving unstable and unreliable readings. It is to be noted that my pH is very low and i am using the millivolt raw data readings to measure the pH. The mV readings tend to drop to 750mV range if i add too many drops of acid or leave the prepared solution to stir after a long time. The pH probe im using is inLab Routine Pro-Ism.
Hello we all know the electronegativity scale and concept of elements in the periodic table
However when it comes to whole materials such as polymers, nanomaterials and etc
How can we understand theoretically if the synthesized material is highly or poorly electronegative ??
I have produced oleum by adding sulfur trioxide, SO3, to sulfuric acid. It mostly contains disulfuric acid (also called pyrosulfuric acid) but i think this method is not suitable for laboratory purpose so is there any feasible procedure for the synthesis of oleum for laboratory purpose?
Suggestions will be highly appreciable.
Recently, the key methodologies that may be applied in this context have been summarised; these include thematic analysis, meta-ethnography, realist synthesis and meta-narrative approach ( (Sharma, Gordon, Dharamsi & Gibbs, 2014).
Among all the methodologies discussed above, which methodology is the most suitable and appropriate for qualitative synthesis of data and how? Or is there any other approach that can be used instead of the key methodologies mentioned above.
Sharma, R., Gordon, M., Dharamsi, S., & Gibbs, T. (2014). Systematic reviews in medical education: A practical approach: AMEE Guide 94. Medical Teacher, 37(2), 108-124. doi: 10.3109/0142159x.2014.970996
I have made polyurethanes from methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). There is no moisture in the reaction. The final polymer is faint yellow or brown even when I used a sterically hindered phenolic antioxidant namely, Irganox 1098. The color of the polymer intensifies after heating the polymer at 160-170 deg C under pressure. The polymer is otherwise stable at that temp. The degradation temperature is higher than 170 deg C. Can you suggest anything to eliminate the color of the polymer both after synthesis and molding? Thanks
I am trying to identify the formation of a synthesis product. Knowing the precursors, I focused on the identification of the H-C long-range coupling between sites (a/b) and (a/c) using [1H-13C]-HMBC and HSQC (to help in the assignment procedure). However, the 1H and 13C chemical shifts of the alkyl side chains of the imidazolium ring are very similar and it appears that there are other signals than those of the synthesis product (the synthesis is supposed to be clean as no substances other than the precursors have been used and it happens in one step).
Also, does the presence of nitrogen hampers the efficiency of polarization transfer ?
You can find a PDF where everything is explained in a schematic way.
Thank you for considering my question.
For the preparation of selenium nanoparticles mostly selenious acid is used however if someone try to prepare it from selenium dioxide what will be the proposed procedure or mechanism?? Is it possible to make selenious acid from selenium dioxide in ordinary chemistry lab?
I am looking for synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles via hydrothermal method by using Manganese(II) nitrate hydrate ( Mn(NO3)2 ·4H2O ) as a Precursor.
Share me some research papers
I am doing synthesis of methanol by CO2 reduction using photo-catalyst and my target is to get only Methanol with high selectivity. How to make a high selectivity for the synthesis only methanol not other products? I am using the photo-catalyst form as Noble metal NPs-TiO2/SBA-15
I need to develop the kinetic model for the Ping-pong bi-bi mechanism for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl oleate ester according to MM model.
I have the final solution for the rate eq. and the general mechanism (files attached) but all my attempts to develop the rate eq. myself failed.
I'll be happy if you could help and show me the steps for developing the model.
thanks in advence.
Recently, I am interested in amino acid coordinated hemes, so I was trying to purchase some kinds of heme but I couldn't.
Because my major is not a Microbiology (or not related to an enzyme), the purification methods written in the papers are not accessible to me. Commercial hemes are the only ones that I can get, but they are just simple hemes.
Can I ligate certain amino acids to a heme without any microbial methods? If so, where can I get the ligation/synthesis methods? Or where can I get (purchase) amino-acids-coordinated hemes?
Thanks for replying
Is there any way to convert sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate abbreviated as (SDS) into dodecylbenzene solfonic acid (DBSA) via a kind of reaction?
As far as I know both are soluble in alcohols.
I have some SDS salt but I need DBSA solution in alcohol.
The only difference between chemical structure of these two is that a Hydrogen atom in DBSA is replaced with a Sodium to create SDS.
Thanks a lot for your answers.
I have one more question: after synthesizing ZnO nanoparticles , I am not able to separate from the original solution (dispersion actually). The recipe is as follows:
1.5 mmol Zinc acetate dihydrate in 15 ml DMSO stirred at 30 degree celsius. then 2.8 mmol tetraethylammonium hydroxide pentahydrate (TMAH.5H20) in 5 ml ethanol is dropped in the solution. The solution is kept stirring 24h prior to the precipitation process. The ZnO nanoparticles were precipitated by ethyl acetate, and washed with ethyl acetate and ethanol for one more time. Finally, the obtained ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed in 8mL ethanol and filtered with 0.45 micron filter before use.
I have some major questions in this process:
1. How can I separate the ZnO NPs for washing? I tried centrifugation at 6000 rpm but i could not get rid of the solvents (DMSO and ethanol).
2. What is the volume of ethyl acetate to be dropped for the precipitates?
Please it would be great if anyone could help me resolve this issue.
The background of this is lengthy, but in short, I am an experienced chemist with essentially no experience doing Grignard reactions.
Most recent literature uses mmol scales @ 0.1-1M concentrations. I need to run a ~1mol reaction, but multi-liter is out of the question. Small scale tests showed that concentrated solutions - but still with several equivalents of Mg-coordinating ether - were *extremely* viscous. No crystals or precipitation, but gelatinous to the point of not stirring. The reactions did not proceed as expected.
Very old mole scale literature usually uses Et2O.
Can someone with first hand experience on preparative scale Grignard rxns give me a feel for the maximum concentration of PhMgCl I should make from Mg/PhCl in THF?
I may need to run the reaction in several batches depending on the answer.
What solutions do you have for disposal of nanoparticles?
For example, after the synthesis of nanoparticles and perform some tests, what way you suggest to eliminate them? I would ask dear to explain how they dispose of the synthesized nanoparticles (especially heavy metal nanoparticles) in the laboratories they work on.
I have some problems with removing diphenyl phosphoryl azide (DPPA) from the reaction mixture. I am using DPPA to convert the acid carboxylic group to isocyanate, using toluene as a solvent of reaction. During the work-up, I use ethyl acetate to extract my product from the aqueous phase. In the next, I wash the organic phase with HCl 2.5%, H2O, and brine. Finally, I remove the solvent using the rotavapor. Does someone suggest another type of work-up?
My product is soluble on toluene, THF, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate.
I have been trying to make cubic BaTiO3 nanoparticles in ambient conditions but could not do so. The solid-state route that I tried ended up melting and sticking of BaCO3 powders in the crucible. I am not able to find some convenient chemical route either for making these cubic BaTiO3 nanoparticles. Please also suggest a way to get dense ceramic (I mean sintering parameters) out of these cubic BaTiO3 nanoparticles.
I would like to know the various transition metal chalcogenides or dichalcogenides (Se or S based), it would be most appreciated if their synthesis is also shared.
I'm going to use cycloheximide to inhibit the synthesis of a membrane protein in HEK-293T cells, but I'm not sure the right time that needed to treat cells without influencing its viability. I used the concentration of 100uM for 21h, which was mentioned in a similar article, cells would die a lot. I'm not sure whether the medium should be replaced after treating the cells for some time or should it be remained in the medium until the harvest of cells. Please tell me if you have experience on using this drugs. ☺Thanks a lot~
One of my masters student will write her thesis about the emergence of happiness as a public policy goal. We are planning to conduct a systematic literature review between 2000 and 2010 to answer our research questions (why and how did happiness emerge as a policy goal?). We will code the selected studies (ie. proposed/argued theoretical and circumstantial reasons by the writers), then we will try to illustrate the theoretical background and circumstances which created suitable climate for happiness to rise as a policy topic during the mentioned time frame. I would appreciate if you could share your opinions about which type of systematic literature review (ie. textual narrative, scoping review, thematic synthesis etc) would fit this research, and I would be more than happy to hear your recommendations about the research topic.
I'm interested in reading about popular research being conducted in the organic chemistry world. Any ideas where to start?
May we design intelligent reactions or intelligent reactant?
I would like to know the different ways to combine M-Se ( where M can be Cu,Co,Fe,Pd,Ru) with MXene (Ti3C2Tx). I recently happen to come across one method which is hydrothermal synthesis using autoclave, likewise are there any other different methods or is hydrothermal synthesis the only option for the given objective?
Has anyone can tell me. Why the acrylic functional group -C=C ( 1680-1660 cm-1 )of FTIR was gone?
This sample was use acrylic and urethane to synthesis.
I couldn't see the -C=C signal on my data.
Is it possible that the -C=O functional group (1780-1720 cm-1 ) signal is too strong lead to the C=C signal is cover?
Please help me! Thank you everyone.
Usually, a nonlinear plant needs to be linearized before using some design method for control law synthesis. Is there any design method, which does not require a linearization?
I'm working on synthesizing PNIPAM (N-isopropylacrylamide) homopolymer via RAFT polymerization, using DOPAT as the CTA and AIBN as initiator. But I couldn't find a suitable solvent so far. Do you know what would be the protocol for using a mixture of methanol and water? Any other protocol for RAFT polymerization of NIPAM would be useful as well
I am looking to buy a infuse/withdraw model syringe pump at used defined flow rates, volume, and time for high-temperature synthesis. Can you please suggest a good model/ company?
I used to synthesis substituted hydroxyapatite using wet chemical process (Co-precipetation), but it leads me always to a structure full of Impurities, beside the uncomplet precepitation of the substituted metal seeing that the filtered solution still a little bit colored.
So could you please suggest a more efficient method to use or just give some advices about the wet chemical process.
Before expending time and resources optimizing the recombinant production of a 55 aminoacid peptide (with 3 disulfide bridges), we were looking for a company that could do synthetic peptide synthesis. So far, I could not find a company that can synthesize a peptide with 3 disulfide bridges. Any suggestion/option?
Stuck waiting for chemicals and looking for an alternative base (not NaH) for the synthesis of a malonic ester from phenylacetic acid? Any suggestions for possible replacement of NaH that will work?
I need references for the most appropriate method to follow for synthesis 1,3,4 -oxadiazole from reaction aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives with hydrazine -hydrate.
Zinc (Zn) plays important role in plant and human body. It helps in synthesis during cell division. There are some specific deficiency symptoms of Zn in plants. In the case of human being what would be the functions and deficiency symptoms of zinc?
Hello, Can somebody please introduce a solvent for replacing by 1-hexanethiol in the synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles by the Hot-Injection method?
I want to use them as hole transport material in perovskite solar cells.
As you know, a time crystal shows oscillations with a period longer than the driving force. Is it possible to use this feature in molecular machine synthesis? Does this provide any advantages to molecular machines?
I think the chemical properties of synthesis and natural rubber are partially different in term chemical bound.
As described above.
Show me lit. ref. if there are examples.
Thanks from a boy inaccessible to scifinder o(╥﹏╥)o
I am working on in- situ synthesis of g-C3N4 supported metal ferrites.. i have to ask that can i used methanol instead of ethanol in synthesis ? Is it suitable for this reaction??
i use 3 gr graphite H2SO4 120ml H3PO4 13,3 (9:1) and i varying KMnO4 10gr 15gr and 20gr with time process 8 hour (4 hour stirrer graphite H2so4 and H3PO4 temp 97 degg ) and 1 hour adding slowly KMnO4 in ice bed and 1 minute stirring at a temperature of 47. why on the results of the xrd peak formed at 12.62 23.7da 42.9 (in the picture). on peaks 23 and 42 what does it show?
I started preparation morpholine dehydration diethanolamine by starting materials: diethanolamine (1mol), H2SO4 (1.8 mol). Temperature (200 oC). After 1o h the acidic solution neutralized with NaOH 50 % . What can I do next step purification morpholine from aqueous soultion?
*Please mentioned/add the detailed CARBYNE synthesis protocol having good references links.
*How CARBYNE is used as a superb material for adsorption study?
*What are the best uses of CARBYNE?
I am finding a way to determine the all the possible derivatives of a certain compound (say derivatives of curcumin). And, I am having a hard time pointing out possible pathways and for novel product derivatives. Can anyone suggest how I can do it systematically or any technique at all, is there a software for this? Thanks
Any reference and paper for synthesis of cis-3-bromocyclobutanecarboxylic acid ?
If any suggestion for preparation ? So please share your thoughts.
I want to know whole chemistry behind synthesis of boron nanoparticle via chemical and biogenic methods. Focussing on why naked boron is not used as I have seen in papers, boron is complexed with some other material like Ag/Zn metal or any other polymer or salt. ALso I want to know the reaction mechanism of Boron nanoparticle synthesis via both biogenic & chemical synthesis approach.
I am currently working on prospects on molecular structure modification and tweaking of readily available compounds that are well-known good antioxidants in various in vitro assays. The goal is to modify the structures, synthesize them, and then assess the activities of the derivatives. Now, I am trying to find some understudied yet promising compounds that exhibit superior antioxidant capacity and has wide structural variability . I was wondering if anyone can suggest any understudied compounds and derivatives I can start with? Some literature and supporting articles would be a great help. Thanks
I am using chlorosulfonic acid in chloroform (inert, 2 hr, RT) to para-sulfonate benzyl groups on a dibenzyl ether. The work up is extraction with water. The reaction, however, does not seem to work. Are there other reaction conditions and/or work up to try for aromatic sulfonation reaction?
I have tried an alternative, stirring with sulfuric acid for a few days, however, I cannot obtain pure product without large amounts of inorganic salts.
Mxene nanomaterials have great potential now a days. However, the preparation of Mxene not easier like graphene oxide and graphitic carbon nitride. So kindly suggest me a symple method to synthesis Mxene.
We have seen researchers using various types of GANs to synthesize medical data. However, it is hard to train the GANs and also the synthesized images are no good compared to the actual since medical images have a highly localized ROI that can be lost upon synthesis. Are there any promising options other than GANs to faithfully synthesize medical images?
Hi, anybody help me?
Why is anhydrous acetonitrile used to dissolve amidites in the synthesis of oligonucleotide in solid phase? What's the consequences?
As a requirment in my project, I have to synthesize Formamidinium bromide (FABr). According to the protocols which are mentioned in the articles, I've synthesized this material but I think there is an error in my work?
Does anyone has the experience of this synthesis?
Because in the articles, the authors don't express all the steps, I want to know if there is any critical strategy during the synthesis of FABr and specially in the purification stage of this process.
I would appreciate if you point out a reliable article which has mentioned all the stages of this synthesis with it's details.
According to the fact that we couldn't use huge sonicators and run the same lab based experiment for industrial productions because of its acute or chronic health effects, I wonder what is the best replacement for sonication to obtain a homogenous mixture of polymers and nanosheets in industries?
I'm conducting a review on the topic mentioned in the question and am seeking a test-list to assist in evidence synthesis
I used to synthesis MACl by myself and I don't even know that the reaction between the MA and HCl leads to MACl or not?
I need complete info about the synthesis.
The hexagonal boron nitride powder synthesised via the tube furnace flies off from the crucible during the synthesis and gathers at the cooler end of the furnace.
Can somebody suggest a possible solution for the same as all my synthesised products are gathering at one end of the tube furnace
Since the beginning of sars-CoV2 pandemics in late December 2019, the race to find a successful therapy is ongoing. So far, no therapy has focused on reducing cell death directly, which triggers inflammation, coagulation and if unchecked can lead to cytokine storm, a known phenomenon in ARDS, and severe COVID-19 patients. Aminaphtone inhibits the synthesis of endothelin-1, a peptide with vasoconstricting properties and also responsible for triggering several cellular signaling pathways that are implicated in lung and endothelial cell injury such as synthesis of cytokines, upregulation of adhesion molecules, increasing capillary permeability and diapedesis, increase thrombosis, downregulation of VE-cadherin, NETosis and tissue fibrosis. Aminaphtone has shown both in vitro and in vivo potential to disrupt many of the cellular signaling involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. It could reduce the severity of the symptoms and if used as prophylaxis, reduce the hospitalization rate. Also, it could help recovering patients by reducing lung fibrosis. Aminaphtone has tremendous potential and should be readily tested in a well designed randomized controlled trial to assess its clinical relevance.
What are your thoughts?
See https://www.researchhub.com/paper/817226/summary for a more detailed discussion.
for synthesis of Ba-Hollandite (BaMn8O16) described in: Cheng, S., Lin, J. T., Ocelli, M. L., & Robson, H. E. (1992). Expanded Clays and Microporous Solids (p.335 & 337), I need Ba-Permanganite (Ba(MnO4)2).
Unfortunately, this seems very hard to purchase, at least no "typical" supplier offers it. Has anyone a suggestion, where to get some small amounts (~ 10-15 g) of Ba(MnO4)2 with a purity of >99% ?
Or: Does anyone know another well working synthesis protocol yielding pure BaMn8O16? A natural speciment would work too, but I haven´t found any that is chemically homogeneous enough.
So, I am looking forward to your suggestions and ideas!
Thank you very much,
I would be very much interested in anyone´s experience concerning the synthesis of pure feitknechtite (β - MnOOH) from a birnessite precursor material.
I am familiar with the experiment from Elzinga 2011. Yet I would be happy if anyone could provide some more information on his or her experience, especially concerning the ratio of birnessite and Mn(II)aq, the reaction time used and the amount and purity of the resulting feitknechtite.
Thank you very much in advance for your help!