Science method

Synthesis - Science method

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Rates of oxide and zeolite formation in a synthesis mixture
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Syngas chemistry has been under study since Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was invented in the 1920s. Despite the successful applications of FTS as the core technology of coal-to-liquid and gas-to-liquid processes in industry, the product selectivity control of syngas conversion still remains a great challenge, particularly for value-added chemicals such as light olefins. Recent studies show that the catalyst design concept of OXZEO (oxide–zeolite-based composite) enables direct syngas conversion to mixed light olefins with a selectivity reaching 80% and to ethylene with a selectivity of 83% among hydrocarbons. They both well-surpass the limits predicated by the Anderson–Schultz–Flory model via the conventional FTS route (58% and 30%, respectively). Furthermore, this catalyst concept allows one-step synthesis of gasoline-range isoparaffins and aromatic compounds, which is otherwise not possible in conventional FTS. A rapidly growing number of studies demonstrate the versatility of this concept and may form a technology platform for utilization of carbon resources including coal, natural gas, and biomass via syngas to a variety of basic chemicals and fuels. However, the selectivity control mechanism is far from being understood. Therefore, we focus mainly on the catalytic roles of the bifunctionalities of OXZEO while reviewing the development of bifunctional catalysts for selective syngas conversion by taking syngas-to-light olefins as an example. With this, we intend to provide insights into the selectivity control mechanism of the OXZEO concept in order to understand the challenges and prospects for future development of much more active and more selective catalysts.
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What units of measurement should be used to compare the activity of ammonia synthesis catalysts: mmolNH3∙gcat-1∙h-1 or molNH3∙gRu-1∙h-1 or TOF/ s-1?
I need links to articles where this issue has been well discussed.
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It can be mol/(kg s), it can also be kg/(kg s). But apart from catalyst activity, it is worth remembering about selectivity and productivity.
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Hello
I just want to know if you have experienced that your piperidine + DMF solution, for deprotection during peptide synthesis, crystallizes when not in use? Have you identified possible factors that contribute to this issue, and how did you address this problem(s).
Hoping for your insightful thoughts.
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Dear Simon, that's a very interesting technical question. According to the link cited below, piperidine does not react with DMF:
Beyond a solvent: triple roles of dimethylformamide in organic chemistry
This paper can be freely downloaded as public full text. Thus I think a slow reaction between the two solvents can be ruled out.
In the case that you stored your piperidine + DMF solvent mixture in the refrigerator, make sure that it did not react with HCl liberated from other reagents. For example, reagents like chlorotrimethylsilane, Me3SiCl, are known to slowly react with moisture and liberate HCl gas. The HCl could then react with piperidine under formation of solid piperidine hydrochloride.
Did the crystals redissolve at room temperature? Piperidine has a relatively high melting point of -10 °C and could crystallize at lower temperatures.
One way to address this problem is to distill you solvent mixture under vacuum until only a solid residue remains. Of course you can always prepare a fresh mixture using pure piperidine and DMF.
I hope this clarifies this issue. Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Hi everyone!
I`ve question about vanadium pentoxide.
Exactly about precursors for the synthesis, about conditions.
For example I need to obtain V2O5 powder, should I firstly obtain NH4VO3, or I can use another substances?
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I'm trying to synthesize a Fe-based metal organic framework but I got something that i guess is Fe3O4, with comparison through pxrd, ftir, and being magnetic of course,
has anyone similar experience??
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Dear Naime, thank you again for your very interesting technical question. Just in case thatcthis is still of interest to you: There are also some more recent reports showing that Fe3O4 can be incorporated into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to give some kind of magnetic nanocomposites. For more information about this please have a look at the following very interesting articles:
[email protected] Magnetic Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Applications
Facile synthesis of [email protected](Fe) towards enhancing photo-Fenton like degradation of levofloxacin via a synergistic effect between Fe3O4and MIL-100(Fe)
Development of a magnetic core-shell [email protected]@UiO-66 microsphere for removal of arsenic(III) and antimony(III) from aqueous solution
(see attached pdf file)
Electronic structure modulation with ultrafine Fe3O4 nanoparticles on 2D Ni-based metal-organic framework layers for enhanced oxygen evolution reaction
This article is freely available as public full text on RG.
Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I have synthesized Polyelectrolyte complex of Chitosan (75% DDA) with SDS, and now want to know the molecular weight of monomeric unit of chitosan SDS complex for further chemical modification.
For chitosan SDS complex synthesis i have taken 161 as the molecular weight of monomeric unit of chitosan and the chitosan SDS complex formed in 1:1 stoichiometry.
How i proceed now with Chitosan SDS complex for further modification????
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You should always write the name as recommended by the RG. Otherwise, the Robot does not inform the expert. Dodecyl sulfate reacts with the monomer 1: 1 at the ammonium group
monomer-NН3 + + -DS = monomer-NН3 ... DC
Calculate the yield from the theoretical by the minimum molecular weight, and then by the maximum and compare.
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Au(III)Cl3 + Ag(I)TFSI in methanol -> Au(III)TFSI3 + AgCl (s)
and then, I will remove AgCl precipitates by filtration..
If this is impossible, what solvent or what method should I use?
(because HAuCl4 can be produced, water cannot be used, maybe)
best regards.
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Dear Hong-I Kim many thanks for your interesting technical question. In general, the suggested reaction makes sense. Personally, I would use a more inert solvent such as dry THF. In THF the AgCl by-product should also form a precipitate which should be easily removed by filtration. Just give it a try on a small scale first.
Good luck and best wishes! 👍
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I am recently making 2D semiconductor materials by CVD synthesis, and I found some problems recently.
In my case, it is very easy to make dozens of products on silicon wafer, most of them are nice and thin crystals.
However, all of it disappeared recently. By using the same techniques, same parameters and same amount of precursors, the results on wafers are mostly clean surfaces, only few and small domains of crystals.
But changing the substrate to mica, the results are as good as before, we got very dense and fine crystals.
Is there any kind of problem that may cause this situation?
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Dear Kai-Hsiang Cheng
Please read the following article for full understanding of your problem:
“Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes via chemical vapour deposition: a comprehensive review”
In addition with the substract cleaning you should also check for other possible reasons which might include the contamination of the reaction chamber. If the chamber is not properly clean after several experimental run then it can also effect the quality of thin film. Else, you should do a comparision of your used experimental parameters like temperature, precursors types and ratio, growth duration and reaction atmosphere etc., because the change of any of these parameters can significantly change the film quality.
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Any suggestions on selection of suitable insulating substrate, matching lattice parameters for graphene synthesis, as an alternative to usual transition metal substrates (e.g., copper, nickel etc.).
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Hello ... May this research be useful to you ... Greetings
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I have heard, that larger the ligands, more better the core shell structures due to the packing of the which in turn results in a decrease in the density of ligands on the surface of the NP.
Is is true? How branching affects the formation of core shell?
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Dear Anchal Yadav many thanks indeed for your interesting technical question. The proper choice of ligands plays a very important role in the design and property control of nanoparticles. For an excellent overview of this field please have a look at the following review article entitled:
The Role of Ligands in the Chemical Synthesis and Applications of Inorganic Nanoparticles
Fortunately this valuable article is freely available as public full text on RG. Moreover, it comprises a list of 600+ references to original research articles in this rapidly expanding field.
In this context please also see the following potentially useful articles:
Effects of Branched Ligands on the Structure and Stability of Monolayers on Gold Nanoparticles
and
PEG-stabilized core-shell nanoparticles: impact of linear versus dendritic polymer shell architecture on colloidal properties and the reversibility of temperature-induced aggregation
Please note that this is just a small selection of relevant articles in this area. I suggest that you also use the "Search" function of RG to find and access other useful research articles related to your subject.
Good luck with you research! 👍
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Trying to improve a process I have been given. The chloro analogue is far more readily available and I would prefer to use that to couple with my acetylene.
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The palladium(II) complex is an effective catalyst for the coupling reactions of aryl Chloroaromatics.
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Hello,
I am having trouble with a certain siloxane-based polymer. The Si-H bond on each end seems to be too reactive to vinyl groups, which is what I do not want in one of the reaction steps. Is it possible to use an end-capping agent to stop the Si-H from reacting, but is also able to be removed ie 'deprotected'? If so, what materials are possible? I know there are plenty of end-capping agents for the Si-H, but I cant seem to find something that could be efficiently removed. Thank you.
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Dear Adam da, yes it is possible, but since you are targetting end groups (low concentration) may be the efficiency will be low. Please check the attached files. My Regards
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Is there any chance for getting product using the above aldehyde and different amines.
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Synthesis Schiff,s bases can be achieved using 4-methyl-5-imidazole carboxaldehyde and primary amines in ethanol using few drops of acetic acid.
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I carried out the VSM analysis for synthesized nanoparticles. Could you please guide me how can I calculate the particles size with results of VSM analysis? And what is the level of accuracy of this method?
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Dear all, the question was already discussed within RG. Which nanoparticles you are dealing with ? Please check the following link and the references therein. My Regards
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Hi all, I need to cleave the ester in Ethyl 2-amino-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate to make the carboxylic acid and retrieve the product from solution to use in downstream applications of linking to amines via reductive amination using sodium cyanoborohydrde.
I tried to cleave the ester with 2M equivalents of KOH in 5:1 MeOH:H2O for 1H at 40C. After 1H, i added 20mL H2O to quench and then tried to precipitate my newly made acid by dropping pH to 1, however nothing precipitated out. I then tried to see if any of my product was unreacted by mixing with diethyl ether to see if any of the light brown color would transfer to the ether layer, but again, nothing happened, the ether layer is completely clear. I guess I should just boil off some water and see if it starts to precipitate out? Im not much of a chemist so I just wanted to make sure I havent made any terrible assumptions along the way...
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Ester can cleaved by boiling it with aqueous ethanolic solution to form acid salt and alcohol. Neutralization of solution with HCL gives an acid.
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I used 150 g of L-lactide (liquid, stored in a fridge at 2-4 degr.C), 0,8 g of Sn(Oct)2 as a catalyst. I mixed L-lactide and Sn(Oct)2 in a glass, than placed the glass into an oven at 140 degr.C for 2 hours. There is no any stirring tool in my lab, so I used my own hands and a glass stick (every 5-10 minutes I stirred the liquid by the glass stick). When I got the glass from the oven and waited for 1 hour, nothing changed. It was a liquid. I wanted to get hard PLLA and do mechanical experiments, but it is a liquid... What did I wrong?
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Anastasiia Kashirina i do agree with the expert views
however have a look at this link
regards
Srinivas Kasulla
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My lab is wanting to get recommendations for trusted companies that perform custom synthesis of organic molecules. Thank you so much!
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If I need three or four molecules to be synthesized by the company. I will test them on bacteria, could any body give me a rough estimation of the costs?
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My research direction is to modify existing molecular beacons but I cannot seem to get the solid phase synthesis of the quencher-free molecular beacon with flurophore attached at the loop region. It appears they are lots of work on this but the synthesis is not clear. I need help on whether the fluorophore is attached before the stem region or after the stem region.
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I finally succeeded in designing the molecular beacon (although this is coming late). I figured that the best way of attaching the Thiazole Orange fluorophore is by attaching it first before completing the stem synthesis. This is because after the stem has been successfully attached, it is a bit rigid for the dye to insert itself into the middle position again.
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It may be in your education and experience that you deal with the structure of organic medicines. Which combination do you think is most common in organic medicine?
For example, many drugs have carboxylic acid in their structure. In your opinion, which compounds play an important role in the structure of the largest number of drugs?
Thanks
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Dear Pejman Rahmani Nejad thank you for your interesting technical question. In addition to the useful link provided by Lukas Schulig please also have a look at the following relevant article entitled
Chemical Structure-Related Drug-Like Criteria of Global Approved Drugs
The paper is freely available as public full text on ResearchGate. According to this article "the most common functional group is the hydroxyl, as its occurrence frequency in all databases is the top one. Moreover, -COOR or -COOH are the second most common functional groups."
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I am fabricating a polymer by the bulk free-radical process. The monomers are very sensitive to the 60 degree centigrade. How can I have free radical polymerization by Azo initiators from 25 to 40 degree centigrade?
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Dear Mosayeb Gharakhloo, better if you have specified the monomer type, you get a broad vision and possilities. Redox couples react well in the mentionned range of temperatures. Please check the following documents. My Regards
10.1002/asia.201801636
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what are common strategies for the synthesis of Nanoliposome
containing Essential Oil and investigation of their Physicochemical Characteristics?
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Hi,
We have used "Mozafari method" for the encapsulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inside lipid vesicles. In summary:
Empty and encapsulated-PUFA liposomes were prepared according to the procedure used by Colas et al. (2007). Briefly, the mixture of the liposomal ingredients including soybean-PLs (Table 1) (preheated to 30 °C) and PUFAs (DHA and EPA; 2:3, w/w) (2:0.4, mass ratio), were hydrated by adding deionised water and glycerol (final concentration 2%, v/v) (preheated to 30 °C) and stirred at 1000 rpm (MAXIMA Digital, Fisher Scientific, Shah Alam, Malaysia) on a hotplate (IKA®C-MAG HS 10, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia) at 30 °C for 60 min. The preparation process was carried out in a six-baffled glass vessel. Compared to the conventional method, in this method liposomes prepared by direct hydration and without solving the PL and FAs in organic solvents. The liposomal samples were kept at 25 °C (ambient temperature) under nitrogen for at least 1 h after preparation to anneal and stabilise them.
Full article available online.
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Also, have a look at these manuscripts:
Rasti, B., Jinap, S., Mozafari, M. R., & Yazid, A. M. (2012). Comparative study of the oxidative and physical stability of liposomal and nanoliposomal polyunsaturated fatty acids prepared with conventional and Mozafari methods. Food chemistry, 135(4), 2761-2770.
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Rasti, B., Jinap, S., Mozafari, M. R., & Abd-Manap, M. Y. (2014). Optimization on preparation condition of polyunsaturated fatty acids nanoliposome prepared by Mozafari method. Journal of liposome research, 24(2), 99-105.
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I'm working on generative models for medical image synthesis, specifically GANs for CT image synthesis. What are the evaluation metrics best suited for evaluating a proposed model?
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You can consider using the Fréchet inception distance (FID) which is a metric that could assess the quality of synthesized images created by GAN.
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I am doing research on the synthesis of paracetamol. I am preparing acetic anhydride solution with a few drops a sulfuric acid and wish to measure the pH of this solution. However my pH meter keeps giving unstable and unreliable readings. It is to be noted that my pH is very low and i am using the millivolt raw data readings to measure the pH. The mV readings tend to drop to 750mV range if i add too many drops of acid or leave the prepared solution to stir after a long time. The pH probe im using is inLab Routine Pro-Ism.
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pH is measured in terms of hydrogen ion concentration in water. Since you are using acetic anhydride and conc. sulfuric acid (no water), any reading your electrode gives is meaningless. It might actually damage the electrode. You can be sure that the mixture will be strongly acidic. When you add this mixture to water, then anhydride will slowly hydrolyze to acetic acid. Since sulfuric acid is also present, the pH will be less than 1.
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Hello we all know the electronegativity scale and concept of elements in the periodic table
However when it comes to whole materials such as polymers, nanomaterials and etc
How can we understand theoretically if the synthesized material is highly or poorly electronegative ??
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Dear Gabris Mahamid, the following documents are extremely important in case you want to go deeper in this subject. Also it is nice if you take a look at 'Israelchevilli's book' on intermolecular forces. My Regards
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Can some share synthesis procedure for dithiol PEG?
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The simplest method is to convert PEG into di-tosylate and after it to substitute tosylate with thiourea. It is well described in this article
10.1002/chin.200330066
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I have produced oleum by adding sulfur trioxide, SO3, to sulfuric acid. It mostly contains disulfuric acid (also called pyrosulfuric acid) but i think this method is not suitable for laboratory purpose so is there any feasible procedure for the synthesis of oleum for laboratory purpose?
Suggestions will be highly appreciable.
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Dear Daniyal Ahmed just in case that this question is still of interest to you: The article cited below contains a detailed description of how to make oleum in the laboratory:
Preparation of Sulfur Trioxide and Oleum
Personally I would suggest to buy oleum from commercial sources as it is an industrial product manufactured on a large scale.
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Recently, the key methodologies that may be applied in this context have been summarised; these include thematic analysis, meta-ethnography, realist synthesis and meta-narrative approach ( (Sharma, Gordon, Dharamsi & Gibbs, 2014).
Among all the methodologies discussed above, which methodology is the most suitable and appropriate for qualitative synthesis of data and how? Or is there any other approach that can be used instead of the key methodologies mentioned above.
References:
Sharma, R., Gordon, M., Dharamsi, S., & Gibbs, T. (2014). Systematic reviews in medical education: A practical approach: AMEE Guide 94. Medical Teacher, 37(2), 108-124. doi: 10.3109/0142159x.2014.970996
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All those mentioned research synthesis designs are possible for qualitative synthesis. Which is appropriate to use, depends on the objective of the study. For example, if one intends to uncover that factors that contribute to an outcome of interest, then the realist approch would be useful. If the intention is to identify processes, then perhaps thematic synthesis maybe appropriate
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I have made polyurethanes from methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). There is no moisture in the reaction. The final polymer is faint yellow or brown even when I used a sterically hindered phenolic antioxidant namely, Irganox 1098. The color of the polymer intensifies after heating the polymer at 160-170 deg C under pressure. The polymer is otherwise stable at that temp. The degradation temperature is higher than 170 deg C. Can you suggest anything to eliminate the color of the polymer both after synthesis and molding? Thanks
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Thanks Nitin for the answer. But do you suggest column chromatography for the polymer?
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Hello,
I am trying to identify the formation of a synthesis product. Knowing the precursors, I focused on the identification of the H-C long-range coupling between sites (a/b) and (a/c) using [1H-13C]-HMBC and HSQC (to help in the assignment procedure). However, the 1H and 13C chemical shifts of the alkyl side chains of the imidazolium ring are very similar and it appears that there are other signals than those of the synthesis product (the synthesis is supposed to be clean as no substances other than the precursors have been used and it happens in one step).
Also, does the presence of nitrogen hampers the efficiency of polarization transfer ?
You can find a PDF where everything is explained in a schematic way.
Thank you for considering my question.
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Salem Baroudi , I think a good strategy is doing a DOSY experiment and comparing the diffusion of CH3 signal with the CH, which are signals with different chemical shifts. If the reaction indeed succeeded the mobility of all of the signal of the same molecules will be the same. Such an experiment would spend 10 min. A Bruker experiment stebpgp1s is enough, TD 32K x 16; p30 = 800 us; d20 = 70 ms; d16 = 200 us. You have to do "dosy 2d" command, instead of zg, to acquire. In order to process, you can make comparisons of the first 1D spectra generated (efp;apk;absn) with the last. You have to apply multiple display and scale one of the spectrum until it has the same intensity of the other, for one of the peaks. Automatically, the intensity of all the peaks from the same molecule will also be equal, in the two spectra. Signals of other molecules (with different diffusion), will not present the same intensity (see attached). If the attenuation of the signals was not higher enough to separate the different molecules, try other p30 and d20 values (higher values are required for polymers, as example). There are also ways to plot the DOSY results in 2D.
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For the preparation of selenium nanoparticles mostly selenious acid is used however if someone try to prepare it from selenium dioxide what will be the proposed procedure or mechanism?? Is it possible to make selenious acid from selenium dioxide in ordinary chemistry lab?
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Sufian Rasheed Give a link to the method you are using, or describe it yourself, please.
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I am looking for synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles via hydrothermal method by using Manganese(II) nitrate hydrate ( Mn(NO3)2 ·4H2O ) as a Precursor.
Share me some research papers
Thanks.
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My reactants are Benzaldehyde,Acetophenone and 2-amino benzothiazole.
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the Mannich reaction is one of the most important C–C bond forming reactions in organic synthesis for the preparation of secondary and tertiary amine derivatives
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Hello friends Good time. I need some issues with the genetically modified goat breeds(composite or synthesis) in the world. Please help me.
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I have worked on native goat breeds like Purgi, Kashmir Goat etc
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I am doing synthesis of methanol by CO2 reduction using photo-catalyst and my target is to get only Methanol with high selectivity. How to make a high selectivity for the synthesis only methanol not other products? I am using the photo-catalyst form as Noble metal NPs-TiO2/SBA-15
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read the article if you are interested in methanol from CO2 using thermal method.
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What is the maximum temperature that can be used for hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2/WO3 nanocomposite?
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Pervaiz Ahmad Thankyou Professor
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Hi,
I need to develop the kinetic model for the Ping-pong bi-bi mechanism for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl oleate ester according to MM model.
I have the final solution for the rate eq. and the general mechanism (files attached) but all my attempts to develop the rate eq. myself failed.
I'll be happy if you could help and show me the steps for developing the model.
thanks in advence.
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MM model is suitable for enzymatic activity in the bulk, while the hydrolytic activity of lipase occurs at the interface. So, you should use a proper kinetic model.
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Recently, I am interested in amino acid coordinated hemes, so I was trying to purchase some kinds of heme but I couldn't.
Because my major is not a Microbiology (or not related to an enzyme), the purification methods written in the papers are not accessible to me. Commercial hemes are the only ones that I can get, but they are just simple hemes.
Can I ligate certain amino acids to a heme without any microbial methods? If so, where can I get the ligation/synthesis methods? Or where can I get (purchase) amino-acids-coordinated hemes?
Thanks for replying
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When you try to ligate amino acid the globulin part (containing proteins) may covalently link to form amide linkage to aminoacid and not to iron.
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Dear all,
Is there any way to convert sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate abbreviated as (SDS) into dodecylbenzene solfonic acid (DBSA) via a kind of reaction?
As far as I know both are soluble in alcohols.
I have some SDS salt but I need DBSA solution in alcohol.
The only difference between chemical structure of these two is that a Hydrogen atom in DBSA is replaced with a Sodium to create SDS.
Many thanks
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Dear Behnam Shahsavani I think that Guobing Xiang already provided a perfect answer to your question. The use of an acidic ion exchange column is certainly the safest and cleanest way to convert your sodium salt into the free acid. If you have no ion exchange column available, you can also add a slight excess of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to an aqueous solution of your sodium salt. Then evaporate the reaction mixture to dryness and extract the free dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid with ethanol to separate the NaCl by-product.
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Thanks a lot for your answers.
I have one more question: after synthesizing ZnO nanoparticles , I am not able to separate from the original solution (dispersion actually). The recipe is as follows:
1.5 mmol Zinc acetate dihydrate in 15 ml DMSO stirred at 30 degree celsius. then 2.8 mmol tetraethylammonium hydroxide pentahydrate (TMAH.5H20) in 5 ml ethanol is dropped in the solution. The solution is kept stirring 24h prior to the precipitation process. The ZnO nanoparticles were precipitated by ethyl acetate, and washed with ethyl acetate and ethanol for one more time. Finally, the obtained ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed in 8mL ethanol and filtered with 0.45 micron filter before use.
I have some major questions in this process:
1. How can I separate the ZnO NPs for washing? I tried centrifugation at 6000 rpm but i could not get rid of the solvents (DMSO and ethanol).
2. What is the volume of ethyl acetate to be dropped for the precipitates?
Please it would be great if anyone could help me resolve this issue.
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The background of this is lengthy, but in short, I am an experienced chemist with essentially no experience doing Grignard reactions.
Most recent literature uses mmol scales @ 0.1-1M concentrations. I need to run a ~1mol reaction, but multi-liter is out of the question. Small scale tests showed that concentrated solutions - but still with several equivalents of Mg-coordinating ether - were *extremely* viscous. No crystals or precipitation, but gelatinous to the point of not stirring. The reactions did not proceed as expected.
Very old mole scale literature usually uses Et2O.
Can someone with first hand experience on preparative scale Grignard rxns give me a feel for the maximum concentration of PhMgCl I should make from Mg/PhCl in THF?
I may need to run the reaction in several batches depending on the answer.
Thanks
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Dear all, attached is a book dealing with tips and practices in manipulating air sensitive chemicals. Under the circonstances you want to work, the best option is to work with a continuous lab flow reactor. Please check the link below. My Regards
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Dear colleagues:
What solutions do you have for disposal of nanoparticles?
For example, after the synthesis of nanoparticles and perform some tests, what way you suggest to eliminate them? I would ask dear to explain how they dispose of the synthesized nanoparticles (especially heavy metal nanoparticles) in the laboratories they work on.
Regards
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Depending on the type of the material, thermal, chemical, physical, or biochemical processing of nanotechnology-containing waste is possible to deactivate them. At present three pathways exist for disposal of this nanowaste: landfill, incineration (thermal treatment), and recycling (material recovery).
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › pmc › articles › PMC6192267
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Hello,
I have some problems with removing diphenyl phosphoryl azide (DPPA) from the reaction mixture. I am using DPPA to convert the acid carboxylic group to isocyanate, using toluene as a solvent of reaction. During the work-up, I use ethyl acetate to extract my product from the aqueous phase. In the next, I wash the organic phase with HCl 2.5%, H2O, and brine. Finally, I remove the solvent using the rotavapor. Does someone suggest another type of work-up?
My product is soluble on toluene, THF, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate.
Best regards,
Sara Moura
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Frank T. Edelmann, I did not follow a literature procedure. Thanks for your solution, recrystallization.
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I have been trying to make cubic BaTiO3 nanoparticles in ambient conditions but could not do so. The solid-state route that I tried ended up melting and sticking of BaCO3 powders in the crucible. I am not able to find some convenient chemical route either for making these cubic BaTiO3 nanoparticles. Please also suggest a way to get dense ceramic (I mean sintering parameters) out of these cubic BaTiO3 nanoparticles.
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Dear Dr. Lakshaman Kumar,
in addition to the useful and interesting information provided by Dr. Abdelkader BOUAZIZ , I suggest you to have a look also at the following papers:
-A Modified Method for Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Synthesis
R. Ashiri, Ali Nemati, M. Sasani Ghamsari, S. Sanjabi, M. Aalipour
Materials Research Bulletin, 46 (2011) 2291–22952292
-Low-temperature synthesis of crystalline BaTiO3nanoparticles by one-step “organosol”-precipitation
Yanling Gao, Vladimir V. Shvartsman, Anna Elsukova and Doru C. Lupascu
J. Mater. Chem., 22, 17573-17583 (2012)
-Synthesis of highly disperse tetragonal BaTiO3 nanoparticles with core–shell by a hydrothermal method
Jinhui Li, Koji Inukai, AkihiroTsuruta, YosukeTakahashi, WoosuckShin
Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, Vol. 5, Issue 4, Pages 444-451 (2017)
Best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
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I would like to know the various transition metal chalcogenides or dichalcogenides (Se or S based), it would be most appreciated if their synthesis is also shared.
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Dear Lokesh,
Selenides should have the better conductivity due to the narrower electronic band gap. As a rule of the thumb the band gap decreases with increasing polarizibility of the anions. As an example we can consider the Cd chalcogenides:
CdS 2.42 eV yellow body colour
CdSe 1.74 eV red body colour
CdTe 1.56 eV black body colour
However, this only concerns the intrinsic conductivity, while p- or n-type dopants can enhance the conductivity tremendously. Many TM chalcogenides can be made by precipitation from solution, as e.g. ZnS, CdS, HgS by the addition of S2- anions.
All the best,
Thomas
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I'm going to use cycloheximide to inhibit the synthesis of a membrane protein in HEK-293T cells, but I'm not sure the right time that needed to treat cells without influencing its viability. I used the concentration of 100uM for 21h, which was mentioned in a similar article, cells would die a lot. I'm not sure whether the medium should be replaced after treating the cells for some time or should it be remained in the medium until the harvest of cells. Please tell me if you have experience on using this drugs. ☺Thanks a lot~
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Thank you sir Madhukar (@ Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh ) , I have tested the toxicity of cycloheximide by using different concentrations and followed up the viobility changes at different time points yesterday. The results showed that a concentration of 100uM (≈90ug/ml)did not cause cell death at 18h, which is somehow different from my previous experiments. I'll do more tests to figure it out. Thank you again.
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One of my masters student will write her thesis about the emergence of happiness as a public policy goal. We are planning to conduct a systematic literature review between 2000 and 2010 to answer our research questions (why and how did happiness emerge as a policy goal?). We will code the selected studies (ie. proposed/argued theoretical and circumstantial reasons by the writers), then we will try to illustrate the theoretical background and circumstances which created suitable climate for happiness to rise as a policy topic during the mentioned time frame. I would appreciate if you could share your opinions about which type of systematic literature review (ie. textual narrative, scoping review, thematic synthesis etc) would fit this research, and I would be more than happy to hear your recommendations about the research topic.
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I would recommend you to refer to the so call-called "Quantitative Systematic Literature Review" technique. Following this like to learn more about this: https://www.griffith.edu.au/griffith-sciences/school-environment-science/research/systematic-quantitative-literature-review
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I'm working on counter electrode for DSSC application, i would like to know if the CoSe can be doped with a MXene like Ti3C2Tx.
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Dear Lokesh Murali please see this useful article entitled MXene supported CoxAy (A = OH, P, Se) electrocatalysts for overall water splitting: unveiling the role of anions in intrinsic activity and stability
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I'm interested in reading about popular research being conducted in the organic chemistry world. Any ideas where to start?
May we design intelligent reactions or intelligent reactant?
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Hottest topics right now in organic chemistry research:
1)Synthesis of nano-materials involving metal catalyst to control COVID-19
2)Isolation of Biologically active compounds of plant products to control COVID-19
3)Develop recombinant DNA Technology to control COVID-19
4)Development of Green technology to produce COVID-19 vaccine
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I would like to know the different ways to combine M-Se ( where M can be Cu,Co,Fe,Pd,Ru) with MXene (Ti3C2Tx). I recently happen to come across one method which is hydrothermal synthesis using autoclave, likewise are there any other different methods or is hydrothermal synthesis the only option for the given objective?
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Dear Lokesh Murali,
The following review article seems to provide a good sort of information.
Recent progress in layered transition metal carbides and/or nitrides (MXenes) and their composites: synthesis and applications, (2017), Journal of Materials Chemistry A
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Has anyone can tell me. Why the acrylic functional group -C=C ( 1680-1660 cm-1 )of FTIR was gone?
This sample was use acrylic and urethane to synthesis.
I couldn't see the -C=C signal on my data.
Is it possible that the -C=O functional group (1780-1720 cm-1 ) signal is too strong lead to the C=C signal is cover?
Please help me! Thank you everyone.
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احتمال بسبب اتعاقب او الرنين
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Usually, a nonlinear plant needs to be linearized before using some design method for control law synthesis. Is there any design method, which does not require a linearization?
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Thanks for answering. But i dont' try to model some system. The question is about control law synthesis methods (for example, classical methods in frequency domain, modern methods such as LQ, LQR, H2, H_inf etc.)
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Ti based C94 catalyst is required for PBAT synthesis
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There are many reasons why scientists who ask the question are silent.
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I'm working on synthesizing PNIPAM (N-isopropylacrylamide) homopolymer via RAFT polymerization, using DOPAT as the CTA and AIBN as initiator. But I couldn't find a suitable solvent so far. Do you know what would be the protocol for using a mixture of methanol and water? Any other protocol for RAFT polymerization of NIPAM would be useful as well
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Dear Danielle Almeida, attached are interesting documents. Is it important for the PNIPAM to have C12 as an end group ? At least one of the attached files use the combination H2O/ROH. I will send additional documents once I take a look at them. My Regards
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Hello Everyone
I am looking to buy a infuse/withdraw model syringe pump at used defined flow rates, volume, and time for high-temperature synthesis. Can you please suggest a good model/ company?
Thank You
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I'm not aware of any such product. You could wrap the syringe in heating tape, but maintaining the plunger seal might be an issue.
You might consider using a heated reservoir, and using mineral oil in the syringe (at room temp) to displace the material in the reservoir. (You'd have to allow for the expansion of the oil as it entered the hot reservoir.)
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Hello all
I used to synthesis substituted hydroxyapatite using wet chemical process (Co-precipetation), but it leads me always to a structure full of Impurities, beside the uncomplet precepitation of the substituted metal seeing that the filtered solution still a little bit colored.
So could you please suggest a more efficient method to use or just give some advices about the wet chemical process.
thank you
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Before expending time and resources optimizing the recombinant production of a 55 aminoacid peptide (with 3 disulfide bridges), we were looking for a company that could do synthetic peptide synthesis. So far, I could not find a company that can synthesize a peptide with 3 disulfide bridges. Any suggestion/option?
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Dear Sílvia Barrabes , If your peptide is a part of naturally occurring protein, it fold in the right way in oxidation buffer.
I have done this kind of peptides multiple times...
Just synthesize the linear peptide with all 6 Cys residues having Trityl protecting groups on side chain, go for global deprotection and proceed for the nacked Cys oxidation with the condition mentioned below.
Add your linear peptide (1 mg/ mL) to the oxidation buffer containing 0.1 M Tris , 1mM EDTA, 0.7 eq GSH, 70 eq GSSG, pH 8.5, stir the mixture for 24h at room temperature, then quench the reaction by adjusting pH to 2 with TFA. Then you can directly purify your peptide by RP-HPLC.
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Stuck waiting for chemicals and looking for an alternative base (not NaH) for the synthesis of a malonic ester from phenylacetic acid? Any suggestions for possible replacement of NaH that will work?
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Having actually done this chemistry ... or a variant of it, I would go with Madhukar's answer - sodium ethoxide and the ethyl ester of the acid. Practically speaking, diethyl carbonate is not that reactive however. I used diethyl oxalate - the resulting ester can be pyrolysed to the malonate (it loses CO)
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I need references for the most appropriate method to follow for synthesis 1,3,4 -oxadiazole from reaction aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives with hydrazine -hydrate.
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Aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives can be converted into 1,3,4-oxadiazole easily by reacting aryl hydrazide with phenyl isocyanate in benzene to get the corresponding N-Phenyl carbamide i.e Ar-CONHNHCONHPh followed by acid cyclization with H2SO4 by heating to get the desired 1,3,4-Oxadiazole.
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Zinc (Zn) plays important role in plant and human body. It helps in synthesis during cell division. There are some specific deficiency symptoms of Zn in plants. In the case of human being what would be the functions and deficiency symptoms of zinc?
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Please take a look at the following RG link.
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Im supposed to synthesize Ni0.9Co2O4 and Ni0.95Co2O4. I'm gonna use the salts Ni(NO3)2 and Co(NO3)2 but Im confused what the numbers 0.9 and 0.95 next to the nickel means and how to start this calculation. 
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NiCo2O4 is synthesized by the hydro-thermal route in the presence of urea.
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Hello, Can somebody please introduce a solvent for replacing by 1-hexanethiol in the synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles by the Hot-Injection method?
I want to use them as hole transport material in perovskite solar cells.
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Asghar Rismanchi yes, you can use thioacetamide as alternative sulfur source. The advantage of thioacetamide is that it does not smell bad. The method is described in this paper:
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As you know, a time crystal shows oscillations with a period longer than the driving force. Is it possible to use this feature in molecular machine synthesis? Does this provide any advantages to molecular machines?
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Thank you so much for pointing out the article, Dear Cuneyt Altindas.
I see that it is related to a time symmetry breaking state and that there were two possibilities, classical and quantum time crystals.
I will try to understand the idea of the classical time crystal. The authors point out two simple hamiltonians, with broke spatial and inversion symmetry. They find some lagrangians that would be interesting to compare to the lagrangian of isotropic crystals.
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PID tuning method based on, direct synthesis approach and loop shaping technique.
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In the direct synthesis approach, the controller design is based on a desired closed-loop transfer function. Then, the controller is calculated analytically so that the closed-loop set-point response matches the desired response. The obvious advantage of the direct synthesis approach is that performance requirements are incorporated directly through the specification of the closed-loop transfer function.
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As described above.
Show me lit. ref. if there are examples.
Thanks from a boy inaccessible to scifinder o(╥﹏╥)o
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Oxidants selectively oxidate primary alcohol to acid, while not influence the Methylthio group attached attached to aromatic ring.In this case methyl hio group gets oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfones because sulphur has different oxidation states it can easily be oxidized to +4 and+6 oxidation states.
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I am working on in- situ synthesis of g-C3N4 supported metal ferrites.. i have to ask that can i used methanol instead of ethanol in synthesis ? Is it suitable for this reaction??
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yes ... u can ... except for the difference of evaporation ... all would be same
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i use 3 gr graphite H2SO4 120ml H3PO4 13,3 (9:1) and i varying KMnO4 10gr 15gr and 20gr with time process 8 hour (4 hour stirrer graphite H2so4 and H3PO4 temp 97 degg ) and 1 hour adding slowly KMnO4 in ice bed and 1 minute stirring at a temperature of 47. why on the results of the xrd peak formed at 12.62 23.7da 42.9 (in the picture). on peaks 23 and 42 what does it show?
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I agree with Nadeesha Maduwanthi Hettiarachchi . Let me know if you have any issues after following the suggested references.
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I started preparation morpholine dehydration diethanolamine by starting materials: diethanolamine (1mol), H2SO4 (1.8 mol). Temperature (200 oC). After 1o h the acidic solution neutralized with NaOH 50 % . What can I do next step purification morpholine from aqueous soultion?
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As morpholine is water soluble it remains in aqueous solution.you have to saturate the solution with NaOH solid flakes .when solution become saturated,separate layers of morpholine might be separated.if not you can extract with solvent like cyclohexane,distillation of solvent gives you crude Morpholine which can be purified by distillation.
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Do zif-8 have absorbance? And after synthesis and purification, zif-8 needs to be stored in powder or can be dispersed in aqueous or organic solvents
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Dear Siva sankari Sivasoorian you should perhaps specifiy which kind of absorbance you mean (light, solvents etc.). Attached please find an article which possibly addresses your question.
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*Please mentioned/add the detailed CARBYNE synthesis protocol having good references links.
*How CARBYNE is used as a superb material for adsorption study?
*What are the best uses of CARBYNE?
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I am finding a way to determine the all the possible derivatives of a certain compound (say derivatives of curcumin). And, I am having a hard time pointing out possible pathways and for novel product derivatives. Can anyone suggest how I can do it systematically or any technique at all, is there a software for this? Thanks
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I suggest using pressurized fluid to extract the samples, then centrifuge for 10 min at 20000 ppm, separate by microfilter and bring HPLC-Mass to 10000 ppm
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Dear All,
Any reference and paper for synthesis of cis-3-bromocyclobutanecarboxylic acid ?
If any suggestion for preparation ? So please share your thoughts.
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You could search for it in RG.
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Hello everyone,
I want to know whole chemistry behind synthesis of boron nanoparticle via chemical and biogenic methods. Focussing on why naked boron is not used as I have seen in papers, boron is complexed with some other material like Ag/Zn metal or any other polymer or salt. ALso I want to know the reaction mechanism of Boron nanoparticle synthesis via both biogenic & chemical synthesis approach.
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I am currently working on prospects on molecular structure modification and tweaking of readily available compounds that are well-known good antioxidants in various in vitro assays. The goal is to modify the structures, synthesize them, and then assess the activities of the derivatives. Now, I am trying to find some understudied yet promising compounds that exhibit superior antioxidant capacity and has wide structural variability . I was wondering if anyone can suggest any understudied compounds and derivatives I can start with? Some literature and supporting articles would be a great help. Thanks
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Good question
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I am using chlorosulfonic acid in chloroform (inert, 2 hr, RT) to para-sulfonate benzyl groups on a dibenzyl ether. The work up is extraction with water. The reaction, however, does not seem to work. Are there other reaction conditions and/or work up to try for aromatic sulfonation reaction?
I have tried an alternative, stirring with sulfuric acid for a few days, however, I cannot obtain pure product without large amounts of inorganic salts.
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agree with Kurt Wachholder
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Hello, I can't understand why a low yield is obtained with the use of HCl in aldol condensation in acid catalysis for the synthesis of hydroxychalcone.
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As mentioned above, if you use dry - gaseous hydrochloric acid, passed through a tube containing a dehydrating agent, then the yield should be higher.
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We have seen researchers using various types of GANs to synthesize medical data. However, it is hard to train the GANs and also the synthesized images are no good compared to the actual since medical images have a highly localized ROI that can be lost upon synthesis. Are there any promising options other than GANs to faithfully synthesize medical images?
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Actual images are best than any existing GANs. I am not aware of any better methods to synthetize images.
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Hi, anybody help me?
Why is anhydrous acetonitrile used to dissolve amidites in the synthesis of oligonucleotide in solid phase? What's the consequences?
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This is because of its physico-chemical properties - CH3CN is a polar aprotic solvent with high dielectric constant (38.8) and dipole moment of 3.92 D thus capable of dissolving a wide range of ionic and non-polar compounds. Several of the monomers (nucleotides) used for the synthesis of oligonucleotides contain polar functional groups thus easily dissolve in CH3CN.
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As a requirment in my project, I have to synthesize Formamidinium bromide (FABr). According to the protocols which are mentioned in the articles, I've synthesized this material but I think there is an error in my work?
Does anyone has the experience of this synthesis?
Because in the articles, the authors don't express all the steps, I want to know if there is any critical strategy during the synthesis of FABr and specially in the purification stage of this process.
I would appreciate if you point out a reliable article which has mentioned all the stages of this synthesis with it's details.
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Dear Reads Nima Tabatabaei Rezaei,
Have you tried the way I propose to go ahead for the same? Just try it.Somebody has done and successfully got some very interesting synthesis results.
Because of the good thermal stability and superior carrier transport characteristics of formamidinium lead trihalide perovskite HC(NH2)2PbX3 (FAPbX3) has been considered to be a better optoelectronic material than conventional CH3NH3PbX3 (MAPbX3). The FAPbBr3 photodetector’s responsivity to two-photon absorption with an 800-nm excitation source can reach 0.07 A W−1, which is four orders of magnitude higher than that of its MAPbBr3 counterparts. Materials such as Formamidine acetate, lead bromide (PbBr2, > 98%) and hydrobromic acid (48 wt% in water), Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) may required for synthesis.
Formamidinium iodide (FAI) and formamidinium bromide (FABr) can be synthesised by dissolving formamidinium acetate powder in a 2x molar excess of 57%w/w hydroiodic acid (for FAI) or 48%w/w hydrobromic acid (for FABr). FABr can be synthesized by slowly dropping 10 mL hydrobromic acid into 50 mmol (5.205 g) formamidine acetate in a flask, accompanied by continuous stirring at 0 °C for 2 h under argon atmosphere. The product FABr was formed once the solvent was removed using a rotary evaporator at 70 °C. The crude white powder was dissolved in ethanol and subsequently reprecipitated in diethyl ether. Then, the filtered product was dried at 60 °C in a vacuum oven for 24 h for further use.
Ashish
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According to the fact that we couldn't use huge sonicators and run the same lab based experiment for industrial productions because of its acute or chronic health effects, I wonder what is the best replacement for sonication to obtain a homogenous mixture of polymers and nanosheets in industries?
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Dear all, what is the role of sonication in your case? Is it for mixing/dispersion or for reaction assisting. If it is for the later option you can use microwaves. My Regards
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I'm conducting a review on the topic mentioned in the question and am seeking a test-list to assist in evidence synthesis
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Can you rephrase the question?
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If yes, how to eliminate remaining KOH when the Schiff base has formed?
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KOH can used as a base catalyst in Schiff,s base synthesis from salicylaldehyde and alanine . Even in absence of KOH the reaction will occur.It can be catalysed by acid also.
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For do my thesis research...
To synthesize sex pheromone a pest, we need 3-decyn-1-ol substance, I would appreciate if you have any information about the synthesis of this substance.
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3-Decyn-1-ol is obtained by reacting 1-propyl bromide with acetylene & HCHO to for CH3Ch2CH2 C _=C- CH2OH followed by reaction with PBr3 & Ph3P to get bromide Wittig reaction of it with HCHO will the gives desired 3-Decyn-1-ol pheromone.
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I used to synthesis MACl by myself and I don't even know that the reaction between the MA and HCl leads to MACl or not?
I need complete info about the synthesis.
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Rightly suggested by Dr. Frank
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The hexagonal boron nitride powder synthesised via the tube furnace flies off from the crucible during the synthesis and gathers at the cooler end of the furnace.
Can somebody suggest a possible solution for the same as all my synthesised products are gathering at one end of the tube furnace
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Rightly suggested by Dr. PERVAIZ
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Since the beginning of sars-CoV2 pandemics in late December 2019, the race to find a successful therapy is ongoing. So far, no therapy has focused on reducing cell death directly, which triggers inflammation, coagulation and if unchecked can lead to cytokine storm, a known phenomenon in ARDS, and severe COVID-19 patients. Aminaphtone inhibits the synthesis of endothelin-1, a peptide with vasoconstricting properties and also responsible for triggering several cellular signaling pathways that are implicated in lung and endothelial cell injury such as synthesis of cytokines, upregulation of adhesion molecules, increasing capillary permeability and diapedesis, increase thrombosis, downregulation of VE-cadherin, NETosis and tissue fibrosis. Aminaphtone has shown both in vitro and in vivo potential to disrupt many of the cellular signaling involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. It could reduce the severity of the symptoms and if used as prophylaxis, reduce the hospitalization rate. Also, it could help recovering patients by reducing lung fibrosis. Aminaphtone has tremendous potential and should be readily tested in a well designed randomized controlled trial to assess its clinical relevance.
What are your thoughts?
See https://www.researchhub.com/paper/817226/summary for a more detailed discussion.
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Yes Mary C R Wilson - During searching I have noticed the term endothelin -but being a chemistry people I have highlighted my cup of Tea - But anyway I must
congratulate you for pointing me such an synthetic drug like Aminapthone as a Covid19 antagonist .
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Dear all,
for synthesis of Ba-Hollandite (BaMn8O16) described in: Cheng, S., Lin, J. T., Ocelli, M. L., & Robson, H. E. (1992). Expanded Clays and Microporous Solids (p.335 & 337), I need Ba-Permanganite (Ba(MnO4)2).
Unfortunately, this seems very hard to purchase, at least no "typical" supplier offers it. Has anyone a suggestion, where to get some small amounts (~ 10-15 g) of Ba(MnO4)2 with a purity of >99% ?
Or: Does anyone know another well working synthesis protocol yielding pure BaMn8O16? A natural speciment would work too, but I haven´t found any that is chemically homogeneous enough.
So, I am looking forward to your suggestions and ideas!
Thank you very much,
Teresa
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Dear Zahoransky,
You can get it from Ambinter, France (Cat. No: Amb22735186), ChemTik, Germany (Cat. No: CTK5E5083), Hubei xin bonus chemical co. LTD, China and Mainchem Co. Ltd, China. If not, you may follow the links for the preparation of it.
3. 10.1002/zaac.200700142
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Hi there,
I would be very much interested in anyone´s experience concerning the synthesis of pure feitknechtite (β​ - MnOOH) from a birnessite precursor material.
I am familiar with the experiment from Elzinga 2011. Yet I would be happy if anyone could provide some more information on his or her experience, especially concerning the ratio of birnessite and Mn(II)aq, the reaction time used and the amount and purity of the resulting feitknechtite.
Thank you very much in advance for your help!
Teresa
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Dear Teresa Zahoransky, cited below are two articles in which your question has been addressed. Both papers are available on RG.
Also please find attached a pdf of a summary of a relevant paper. Unfortunately I do not have access to the full text.
P.S. One minor remark on questions on RG in general: If someone helps you by answering your questions, it would be polite to recommend those answers....