Science topic

Solvents - Science topic

Solvents are liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Questions related to Solvents
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Is any solvent can be used for removing STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER (SBR) from metals ?
Chemical solvents or removal procedures
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SBR dissolves nicely in toluene due to the aromatic styrene groups
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Dear All,
I have been trying to perform TDDFT calculation for the Ga-phthalocyanine complex, and this calculation has been terminated with the following error message:
Largest valence mixing into a core orbital is 5.94D-01
Largest core mixing into a valence orbital is 3.87D-01
Excessive mixing of frozen core and valence orbitals.
Error termination via Lnk1e in /opt/g16/l801.exe at Sat Jul 24 14:46:19 2021.
Below there are data of my calculations:
the system: C68H48ClGaN8O4
basis set: 6-31G*
method: B3LYP or wB97XD
implicit solvent: THF
# of basis functions: 1345
symmetry: C1
charge and spin: 0 1
software: Gaussian 16, revision B.01
What could be the reason for this failure? Unfortunately, I could not find the answer by googling for it.
Thank you very much in advance!
Best regards,
Aleksey.
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Dear Aleksey E. Kuznetsov,
Are you using pseudopotential for Ga?
Could you please share your input file? Probably the first line (# ...) will be enough to have an idea.
Let's see if we can solve the problem!
Best regards,
Fernando
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What is Carbon Nitride Solvent?
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Carbon nitrides are usually soluble in protic solvents like water or alcohols and also you can use organic polar solvents too.
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I am carrying out centrifugation of exfoliated materials and a bit confused about the ways to change my procedure. My centrifuge system has been specifically optimised for water based materials (1200 rpm, 1 hr). Recently, I have started using a solvent which is about 8 times more viscous than water. Therefore, I want to know the possible changes in sonication I should be looking forward to.
1- How does centrifugation rpm and time depend on the viscosity as the material being exfoliated is same?
2- If I use only one bottle of liquid after exfoliation for sonication, can I use another bottle of water on the symmetrically opposite side or does it need to be the same solvent in the other bottle. Asking this as I don't want to use blank solvent just for centrifugation only. Further, if I use water, should it equal volume or equal weight compared to the first bottle?
Thanks in advance.
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Dear all, I think one should first go through some basic laws behind centrifuge, such as Stoke's Law. Generally, when to compare solvents or liquids in this experiment, densities are used instead of viscosities. Further details are presented in the attached file. My Regards
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I am trying to quantify pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, analgesics, antidepressants, beta-blockers, hormones) in river sediments and have seen many various extraction techniques in different papers. I hope to use ultrasonic assisted extraction with different solvents. Any guidance on testing some methods and help on getting started would be great!
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Hi Ankit,
Thank you for your suggestion. I will look at the article you suggested.
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LOD for my standard is 0.0115 mg/ml
LOQ is 0.0349 mg/ml
I diluted my sample 3 times dilution
I extracted using 2.5 g powder in 25 ml solvent
so, if I want to tabulate my LOD and LOQ in mg/g
how to calculate it?
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Let's take our LOD : 0.0115 mg/l
Was measured on 3x diluted solution : initial concentration is 3x0.0115 = 0.0345 mg/l
You had 25ml total initial extraction volume, meaning you had : 0.0345 x 25 / 1000 = 0.0008625 mg in your total 25 ml from 2.5 g solids
So, your solid LOD is : 0.0008625 / 2.5 = 3.45 10-4 mg/g or 0.345 mg/kg
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I am carrying out sonication of exfoliated materials and a bit confused about the ways to change my procedure. My sonication system has been specifically optimised for water based materials (1200 rpm, 1 hr). Recently, I have started using a solvent which is about 8 times more viscous than water. Therefore, I want to know the possible changes in sonication I should be looking forward to.
1- How does sonication rpm and time depend on the viscosity as the material being exfoliated is same?
2- If I use only one bottle of liquid after exfoliation for sonication, can I use another bottle of water on the symmetrically opposite side or does it need to be the same solvent in the other bottle. Asking this as I don't want to use blank solvent just for sonication. Further, if I use water, should it equal volume or equal weight compared to the first bottle?
Thanks in advance.
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Thank you for your confession! It amused me. I think you need some music to help your day. My suggestion is:
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I read some papers about sol-gel method to make the ZnO thin film or seed layers. But I don't know what's the difference between using sol solvent and gel solvent to make the film?
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Dear Zhou Qian, this is just to differentiate between the solvent of the precursor and the solvent forming the medium for gel formation. Please take a look at the following documents. My Regards
DOI: 10.5772/67857
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Hi,
I am working on the project on developing natural pesticide to control root-knot nematode. I am new in field of extraction. So, I wish to ask two questions:
1. Which method are commonly used to isolate solvent from plant extract using Soxhlet apparatus? Which is the best condition for remove n-hexane from extract?
2. What is the suitable solvent to dilute n-hexane extract?
I am appreciate for your kind recommendation. Thank you
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Evaporator rotary/rotavap apparatus is used for the first step. In the next step, you could to use ethyl acetate solvent.
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Dear scientists,
My acetic acid solvent contains 1000 ppm acetic anhydride. I want to reduce it to 0 ppm. what process I should do? - I have tried atmospheric distillation but it was reduced to 600 ppm. Please suggest.
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The excess acetic anhydride can be removed by distillation at atmospheric pressure, and the residue is distilled under reduced pressure through a short (15-cm.) http://www.orgsyn.org/demo.aspx?prep=CV4P0790
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Hi Folks,
Hope everyone is happy and healthy :)
I am trying to use a compendial method for a sample that has the limitation of nominal concentration. Let say the compendial method has the concentration of 5 mg/ mL for testing impurity but mine would have Conc. of 0.4 mg/mL at maximum ...What do you recommend to increase S/N and sensitivity... I am trying 1. Narrower Column, 2. Smaller particle size ... I also extract the molecule from the samples by applying Min amount of solvent (Extractant) to have the highest possible Conc. in addition, I have tried a higher injection volume. Yet I still do not see some peaks as compendial method at higher concentration of 5 mg/mL
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Hello, so I'd not proceed to validation unless I get reasonable method development , right? and LOD and LOQ are so related :)
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I am trying to use CB(8) and various gels as a part of my PhD project, and wish to do some NMR on it to confirm inclusion within it. But as it is quite insoluble in many solvents or they become a gel in other solvents, I do not know the best way to go about it. Any suggestions would be appreciated!
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What feature the spectra and, or methods can you use to confirm inclusion?
The rate of overall molecular motion determines how much H-H dipolar coupling contributes to the H--1 and/or C-13 NMR line widths.
For solids, you would need to use solid-state NMR methods.
For gels, the answer depends on the viscosity of the sample. H-1 NMR may be possible. The lower the viscosity the more narrow the line widths. If the inclusion complexes are stable above room temperature, increasing the probe temperature could be helpful.
Finally, is there a dynamic equilibrium between inclusion and non-inclusion species? If you are unlucky, the exchange rate could render the relevant lindwidths to be very broad.
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I Tried HPLC of the sample with the following set of parameters set:
Instrument: LC AD 20
Flow rate: 1ml/min
Temp: 30 degree
Sample Injection: 30 microliter
Protein analyte conc: 5mcg/ml, 10mcg/ml, 20mcg/ml, 30mcg/ml.
Time for running: 15min
Pressure: 4293 Psi
Solvent used: 30% Acetonytrile(ACN:D.H2O)
Prior to the use I washed the column with solvent for 1 hour and found that the peaks were not clear and same upon repetetion. Can anyone suggest how to perform HPLC for a short aminoacid sequence(11 aminoacids) structure.
Thankyou
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· Use of superheated and supercritical water (SW) as a solvent for the ligand-free homogeneous C-C Coupling reactions.
· As the temperature rises, the dielectric constant of water drops significantly from 80.1 (20 °C) to 6 (374 °C) due to the decrease of hydrogen- bond strength.
· At elevated temperatures, water behaves much like diethylether.
· The corresponding yields were often lower than those reported in organic solvents, possibly due to the deactivation of the catalyst
· This drawback of ligandless coupling may be overcome by dispersing the catalytic material in an aqueous hydrotropic medium as it possesses surfactant like properties.
· Advantages :
· low catalyst loadings and rapid reaction times
· ease of reaction (no need for anaerobic conditions)
· Use of a nontoxic, nonflammable solvent.
· The methodology is currently being used in C-C coupling reactions.
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Palladium catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions can not be carried out in water due to inactivation of the catalyst in Water. Palladium-Catalyzed reaction needs anhydrous organic solvents.
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UV measurement require the NPs to be well dispersed in the liquid. What kind of liquids/solvents must be used for the UV measurments such as Fe2O3.
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Dear Janah Zeb, Grateful for your reply.
In the article suggested by you, it is mention only as
"For both UV-Vis and photoluminescence measurements, spectra were recorded by dispersing equal amount of NPs prepared from different precursors in distilled water as solvent"
But no precise amount is mentioned.
What we have been doing so far,
specimens of 1 mg in 5 ml DIW and with further dilution during UV testing.
With this the UV spectra is not well observed.
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I am looking for some review paper about different types of available/so far used solvents and their effect for a particular polymer. It could be for any polymer. Like for electrospinning of polymer A different types of x,y,z etc solvents have been used.
Thanks
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I wish to carry out an analysis of the constituents of PUR foams, by means of mass coupled gas chromatography; I am looking for information or recommendations on how and what solvent I can use to dissolve this foam and pass it through the chromatograph. Thanks
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Dear Gabriel Prieto, solvents are not used to dissolve PU for GC-MS, but to extract compounds from it to be analysed by GC-MS. If this is your objective, acetonitrile is the best solvent for that. Please check the following documents. My Regards
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I can calculate the solubility of a polymer molecule of small molecular weight at different temperatures. How can I determine the solubility of the same polymer having a large molecular weight with the same result? Is there any conversion formula?
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Dear Pallab Das, I don't think that such a conversion exist. It is better to think using the cohesive energy density (CED) which increases with polymer MW, but not as a regular function. This is because when increasing MW other parameters arise and interfer with the ease of solubility, to mention : spatial arrengements and entanglements of chains. These hinder the ease of solvent diffusion. Also you have to consider that when choosing the solvent to low MW polymer by taking the closest solubility parameter value, for sure such a value will be far away for high MW polymer. This means if the solvent is good for low MW, will not be so good for high MW. Example water is a good solvent for PEG's but some PEO's (high MW PEG's) are extremely difficult to solubilize in water. My Regards
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I am synthesizing metal complexes and now the compound bearing an organic part and inorganic metal part. But the metal complexes are very difficult to dissolve in organic solvents, I tried sonication, but it get dissolved partially in solvent DMSO. This issue will definitely affected the further characterization and application process. Any one please suggest a solution
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Dear Anjali, thank you for asking this interesting question. Unfortunately, asking for "a better solution for the solubility of metal complexes" is very general. Thus it is difficult to give you a qualified answer without knowing a few more details about the type of metal complexes you use. As mentioned by Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh highly polar solvents like DMSO old DMF might be a solution. However, think about the well-known red nickel dimethylglyoxime complex (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel_bis(dimethylglyoximate)). This complex is insoluble in water and common organic solvents. You could also have coordination polymers which are insoluble in all organic solvents. Often a modification of the ligand system or the use of additional ligands can lead to more soluble complexes.
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I'd want to know if any problem could occur during the extraction, if ethanol is used as a solvent, as the microwave extractor is intended for solvent free extractions of volatile compounds. Is there any chance of excessive pressure building up in the system?
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Dear Adrian Nisca, thank you for posting this interesting technical question. I'm nor really an expert in this field as we are working in synthetic organometallic chemistry. Of course you have a pressure build-up when you use a solvent like ethanol under microwave conditions. For a highly useful overview on microwave-assisted extraction please have a look at the following review article which might help you in your analysis:
Microwave-Assisted Extraction
Fortunately this review paper has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that you can freely download a pdf file. It includes some advice on Ethos microwave extractors, but you should also consult the instruction manual of your apparatus.
A nice short overview on solvent-free extraction is provided in the following article:
Solvent-free extraction of food and natural products
This paper is freely accessible as public full text on RG.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I observed high solvent content as a warning from the phaser when I solve my structure. What's the cause of the high solvent in protein crystal?
p.s. I calculated the Matthew probability of my crystal, and it predicted it as a 10mer. I did MR with phaser using 2 copies of my model. Could this be why?
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Dear Gengnan Li ,
probably you already sorted out this issue, but I'll weigh in any way.
You don't mention the resolution of the data. Bear in mind that at lower resolution and high solvent content, Mathews coefficient "trembles" a bit. Do not assume a 10mer straight forward, try to phase searching for 8 molecules, and then 9, and then 10, and so on. Eventually you'll reach a step where no more molecules are found.
Anyway, refine the solutions and check R/Rfee variation, and eventually FoFc(+) maps: is there additional blobs of positive density? If so, probably there are more molecules to search for. Also check, e.g. in PyMol, for crystal packing: are all molecules in contact with each other? Are there any "holes" in the packing? If so, keep searching.
One final hint: if you are looking for a 10mer in the ASU, and you give PHASER a 2mer, you have to look for 5 molecules. Probably PHASER is complaining because it calculates Matthews coefficient, it "guesses" 10 molecules in the ASU, and you have only asked for two molecules (you 2mer search model).
Hope this helps. Get back to me (in private if you want), if I wasn't clear eneough.
Best regards,
Jose
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I am trying to Tosylate c4 position of a 2',3',5' triprotected uridine to perform a substitution with an amine afterwards. All my attempts have been made in dry conditions. I've tried literature procedures with TsCl, DMAP and dry DIPEA and distilled DCM as solvent, then I tried DMAP and dry distilled Pyridine both as base and as solvent, then I shifted to TEA as base and distilled acetonitrile as solvent. I've tried stirring at 0°C, and then from 0°C to r.t. My starting material is clean. TsCl is working and properly stored, and same goes for DMAP, the bases and solvents are either purchased dry or have been distilled. I am unable to see any new spot in the reaction, even after 24h. Do any of you have experience in tosylating uridine c4? Are there structure-related issues that make difficult to Tosylates such a substrate? I've even tried with MsCl, which is more reactive, but without results. I can't use harsh basic conditions otherwise my uridine will be cleaved from the ribose, and I can't use acid conditions because of acid-sensitivity of my protecting groups (additionally, concerning the type of reaction, acidic conditions are of no use).
Thank you all
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Dear Claudia, I just came across your very interesting technical question. Did you have any success with this reaction in the meantime? As an inorganic chemist I'm certainly not a proven expert in this field. However, when I looked at the numering scheme of uridine (see attached) I found that the 4 position is a CH unit in the ribose ring. Why should tosyl chloride react at a carbon atom? I may be wrong, but to my knowledge tosylation is only possible at oxygen atoms, i.e. reaction of TsCl with –OH functional groups. Thus I'm afraid that you will not achieve tosylation at the C4 position under any reaction conditions, no matter what reagents and solvents you choose. 😢
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I currently store my 10 mg/mL mixed composition of POPC+PGPC (9:1 mol/mol) in a chloroform/methanol (9:1, v/v) solution. For the BLM experiment I require a working volume of ~40-50 uL of this solution which I dry into a lipid film and subsequently re-suspend in organic solvents. I use a decane : butyl alcohol mix for plain POPC, but I am having trouble with stabilizing my POPC+PGPC due to PGPC's highly oxidized nature.
So far I have tried (v/v) 50:1, 20:1, 10:1, 5:1, and 3:1 ratios of decane to butyl alcohol, and in each case my lipid precipitated into a milky substance from between 30 minutes to 1.5 hours.
I would greatly appreciate it if someone had any insight into how I could stabilize my lipids in organic solvent for an entire day? No papers on supported lipid bilayers/BLM have insight into working with oxidized lipids.
Thank you, in advance.
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Thank you for your suggestion, as well. I think you may be correct in suggesting that the issue is one of solubility. Actually, I just found out that the POPC stock I was using was old, and that may have further contributed to the instability. Once I am able I will try again with fresh POPC and PGPC. If that fails then I will try to make solutions with hexane instead of decane, as you allude to.
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The metabolite that is extracted after evaporation of the solvent is purified using ethanol and ethyl acetate solvent by silica gel chromatography column.Is it possible that our carotenoids are oxidized at this distance, but all this is done in the dark?
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You can add to the extraction solvent some antioxidant, ie, BHT. Oxygen can be excluded by working with Flash chromatography applying nitrogen pressure to the column head. Also solvents can be degassed prior to use.
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Due to the high melting point of PEEK particles, this polymer is insoluble in many solvents except sulfuric acid. I just wants to know that which solvent can dissolve this polymer. Also, I am so interested to know that does anyone know that haw this polymer can dissolve in the suspension of sodium borohydride?
Thanks
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Dear Atiye Sadat Sadat Kachooei this is a very good and important technical question. Generally, PEEK polymer (= poly(ether ether ketone)) is known to be insoluble in all common solvents except concentrated sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid (not advisable because of the high toxicity of HF). However, there is a report that 4-chlorophenol can be used as alternative solvent for PEEK polymer. In this context please have a look at the following useful article:
A new solvent for poly(ether ether ketone)
This paper is freely available as public full text (see attached pdf file).
It might also be helpful to check the answers given to some closely related questions which have been asked earlier on RG:
How can I dissolve PEEK pellets and cast into films?
(9 answers)
and
Is any solvent available to dissolve PEEK pellets?
(23 answers)
I hope this helps. Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Gums I'm working on have approximately 60-80 polysaccharide by content but Im unable to precipitate or purify the gum by using methanol ethanol or even acetone. By acetone additon i just get slurry. But not complete separation or precipitate. But before adding solvent if I add calcium chloride and then followed by solvent I get change in media and precipitaes setting down in bottom. Should I proceed with that?
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Why dont use ethanole?
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Dear colleagues, I would like to know if there is a mathematical equation or model to calculate the Soxhlet number of cycles by varying the following parameters:
- the type of solvent
- the volume of the extractor
- the temperature of the solvent heating
if yes how can we apply it? and how much uncertainty it has?
thank you so much
best regards
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Suggested reference: D.A. Ellis, "Prediction of multistage solvent extraction operation from limited data", Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 52(3) March 1960, 251-252.
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I already know about the general solvents that are used to dissolve curcumin including methanol, ethanol, DMSO. However i am more interested in knowing the buffer in which it will be soluble.
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Thankyou sir
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Up to now, our group have been using some mixture such as NaOH/water + ethanol, H2SO4/water + ethanol to service for this task. Follow up your opinion, what should the appropriate solvent or mixture use to remove them? Please give your reference resources to support. Thanks!
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Dear Dang T. Nguyen thanks for asking this very interestiing technical question. For a very detailed study of this topic please have a look at the following freely accessible Master thesis entitled:
Lignocellulosic biomass fractionation into cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin by prehydrolysis and ethanol organosolv treatment
(see attached pdf file)
The following research article might also be helpful in your analysis:
Extraction and characterization of lignin from different biomass resources
This paper has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG. Thus it can be freely downloaded as pdf file.
Good luck with your work and please stay safe and healthy!
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The Extended Hansen model is used for this purpose, but it is the best?, is there any others?
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Thank you Elmira. I will search for the original paper of Jouyban-Acree
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I'm trying to extract an antimicrobial compound (active against Staph aureus) from the organic layer of a liquid-liquid extraction. What are some potential organic solvents I could resuspend the layer in that are not toxic to bacterial cells (whether in general or at a certain percentage)? I have already tried 5% DMSO and 5% isopropyl alcohol with little luck.
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Ethyl alcohol, use trituration if needed.
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Please can you help me to get the best HPLC protocol in the analysis of plant Extracts "Lepidium sativum”?
What solvent is used for HPLC?
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Hello, I have modelled carbon capture modelling in Aspen Plus using MEA (25 wt/wt %) solvent and the model works well in the open cycle and for the convergence of recycling lean solvent stream, I have added the Make-up streams of water and MEA for the steady-state and also included balance blocks to calculate and update the Make-up streams of MEA and water but still, I am facing issues in the convergence of Absorber and Stripper columns. I would be grateful for any inputs from the community on how to deal with this error. Thanks a lot in advance.
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I agree with Junior Lorenzo Llanes
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Can I use soxhlet extractor for hydrodistillation. I don't want to use solvents.
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We are extracting tannin from plant. The method says that after treating the plant sample with acetone/water (7:3; v/v), solutions are then concentrated, then the aqueous extracts were freeze-dried.
Sadly, we don't have freeze dryer. Can we just use rotary evaporator to remove the solvent, then put it in the freezer afterwards?
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vacuum spray drying, vacuum microwave drying and vacuum foam drying
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I am working with a reagent that is prone to hydrolysis for my chemical reaction. For that reason, one of the procedures that I am following recommends the use of freeze-pump-thaw cycles to degass the solvent. However, can I just use an anhydrous solvent instead of going through this process? Forgive me if this is a very obvious question.
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Dear Samuel, thank you for asking this interesting technical question. If you are working with a moisture-sensitive compound and use carefully dried solvents, there is no real need to degass the solvent. However, always keep in mind that there is moisture present in the ambient air. Thus in this case it is advisable to work under exclusion of air (e.g. Schlenk line, dry-box etc,) right away. Good luck with your research!
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I saw some papers with colorful solvents for some application. Especially, for wetteblity test. I also intertsed to do that. Where and what type days shall I search? Thanks
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Dear Wondimagegne A Mo , If you do a wettability test with an instrument that has a camera with white or blue light falling through a color may not help to distinquish the droplet you need to make to determine parameters like a contact angle etc. It also depends on which liquids you want to use. As a guide have a look at fuel dyes (dyes added in some countries to distinguish between regular fuel (uncolored) and that to be used in industry/agriculture (colored). Check out this link
for what dyes are used. They are normally abundant and cheap.
Kind regards, Leo
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Hello, everyone!
I am using metal oxide/Graphene composite and electrospinning it using PVA/Water polymeric medium. When I deposit on the aluminum foil the surface is uniform with fewer flakes. I am speculating that this may be due to the polymer/solvent non-uniform evaporation from the surface due to annealing (450C for 2 hours). Can anyone suggest something from their experience about the annealing of metal oxide electrospun film for robust adhesion and uniform deposition? is these flakes normal? or do I need to change the polymer or solvent?
thanks in advance.
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This looks like it could come from the low wettability of the water on your substrate. You could measure the contact angle with your solution to make sure. In case this angle is effectively high you could try to do a plasma treatment of your substrate to increase wettability (if it can support it) but the best option would probably be to change the solvent.
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Hi everyone,
I'm trying to improve the solubility of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in common vegetable oils (soybean/sunflower) in an liquid product to be used at 298 K. So far I've tried the following:
1) Formulate an emulsion (unstable in time and you need specialized equipment)
2) Reduce viscosity of the solvent by adding a cosolvent like a fatty acid (C18, no luck)
Knowing that the solvent has to be a food-grade oil, could you please suggest any ideas or recommendations to choose a suitable solvent for this application?
Thanks
Andres
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I have to calculate dielectric constant of a liquid solvent.
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Hello Snighda,
it depends on the frequency of course.
If you need the static value, I would measure the capacity C of a condensor. You need 2 plates (electrodes) and a cuvette filled with the liquid. You measure the capacity with and without liquid. The ratio is epsilon. I would select a ac-method to determine C.
For high frequencies, the measurement of the velocity of light is a usual method. Here, the phase shift between 2 beams, one within vacuum (or air) and the other in liquid gives the result.
With Regard
R. Mitdank
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I need to perform GPC test for only PC component in PC/SEBS composite, but the SEBS component cannot be etched away.
So I want to know what solvent can dissolve polycarbonate (PC) but not SEBS or what solvent can dissolve SEBS but not PC?
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Polycarbonate(PC) can be dissolved in dimethylformamide(DMF) but SEBS won't be soluble in DMF.
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Should the CV curve of the KCl solution be flat?
Or there is a problem with the rate on my measurement, which causes it to have a peak.
Reference electrode is Ag/Agcl
Scan Rate = 50 mV/s (step 5mV/Delay time 100ms)
Scan Range : -0.2V~0.6V
The solvent is distilled water.
Blue line is from -0.2V to 0.6V
Red line is from 0.6V to -0.2V
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Yes. The question has no meaning without defining the electrode material...
The results will be very different for mercury, platinum, gold, and glassy carbon, for example. THE SURFACE AREA of the electrode will be very important to the current scale. We can't tell if this is a large or small response without knowing the
electrode surface area.
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We are researching for extracting phenolic acid from calamansi and lemon using soxhlet extraction, we are finding studies about how to remove solvent to the extract from soxhlet extraction.
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Dear Rhovie, just in case that this technical question is still of interest to you: Normally you can just use a rotary evaporator to remove the solvent from your extract after Soxhlet extraction. You can also remove the solvent more slowly under vacuum using a cold trap while stirring with a magnetic stirring bar. This way you have a better control and can perhaps stop the evaporation procedure when a precipitate starts to form.
For more general information in this context please have a look at the following useful article:
Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and stimulatory roles of citrus fruits on some lactic acid bacteria
This paper is freely available as public full text on RG.
Good luck with your work and best wishes!
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I want to incubate monocytes in RPMI medium with oleylamine (liquicd from sigma) to neutralize the surface charge on monocytes but everytime i add oleylamine to RPMI medium (even without cells) it make clumps and solidify everything. Is there anyone with similar problem and possible solutions? My other concern is to find a solvent which keeps still keeps oleylamine positive charge.
Thanks in advance
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Dear doctor Thakur,
Most oleylamines are well dissolved in great way by the chloroforms and alcohols.
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Dear all,
I've been synthesizing/formulating a polymer film using DMF as an organic solvent. I would like to evaporate this solvent (DMF) afterwards using a vacuum desiccator that is operational in an argon-filled glovebox. The goal is not to expose the polymer to air. For the extraction/evaporation of the solvent (DMF), I have a vacuum pump (with a solvent trap) that is connected to the desiccator while heating at 60 to 80 °C for several days.
The problem is that it has become kind of impossible to pump out the DMF so as to collect it in the solvent trap. It always ends up evaporating and condensing on the glass of the desiccator right on top of the petri dish that holds the solute+solvent.
Can some please suggest a possible work-around for this challenge? Below is an image of the vacuum desiccator.
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Dear Ernest Anderson thank you for your interesting technical question. As mentioned by Vishnu Kiran I would try to replace the DMF by diethyl ether. DMF is normally not a good solvent to be placed in a glovebox anyway. For a potentially useful reference please have a look at the following article:
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) Usage in Epoxy/Graphene Nanocomposites: Problems Associated with Reaggregation
This article has been posted as public full ext on RG and can be freely downloaded as pdf file.
You might also want to have a look at the answers given to the following closely related RG thread:
How to remove DMF completely after completion of reaction (DMF used as solvent in reaction)?
Good luck with your work!
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Hi all,
I want to know how two carbide material will sandwich with each other. Let me make my question more elaborative. Let say, X2C and Y2C carbide materials are there, now I want to make X2C-CY2 (X2C2Y2) out of them. Is there any specific process to do the same like any chemical reaction with solvent (with heat treatment also) or any other procedure?
Any small suggestion is highly appreciable.
Thanks in advance.
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Thanks again. yea, this a question not a discussion, next time I will be aware of that.
I want to prepare metal carbide composite. I have Cobalt metal carbide Co2C and Co3C and now I want to make the composite like Co2C-CCo3 i.e. want to make a common carbon bond. Or might be a common carbon layer one side will be Co2C and other side will be Co3C. Is there any reaction or procedure to make it?
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We have a Thermo Finnigan Surveyor with PDA detector, AS and LC pump. Xcalibur 2.0.7 communicates to all the devices. When we try to run a single line sequence, e.g. injecting 20 uL sample from position A:1, the AS shows 'running' and PDA sector and LC pump show 'waiting for contact closure'. The pump is on and solvent is flowing through but the AS is not moving at all.
Under 'direct control' mode, we can move AS to any position or up and down. But when try to inject sample, the status of AS shows 'busy' but there is nothing happened.
Any idea about what is happening?
Thanks in advance.
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Hello Yaojia Sun, I am dealing with a similar problem, were you able to resolve the your problem? Thanks in advance.
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Dear Researchers,
I'm trying to dissolve a neat mixture of triglycerides (Sigma: 17810-1AMP-S) so that I can resuspend it in PBS at different concentrations for measurement using vibrational spectroscopy. What is the best protocol/solvent to achieve this with minimal to no interference from any other reagents?
Thanks in advance for all the help.
Best wishes
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Try dissolving in CHCl3, or CCl4. CCl4 might turn out to be better in terms of non-interference in the spectroscopic analysis.
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I am incorporating di/tripeptides into an anhydrous reaction carried out in either DMF or DMSO but have encountered solubility issues with the peptides I have used so far, being far more water-soluble. Which amino acids typically confer high solubility in either of these solvents?
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Of course, the hydrophilic residues containing AA (Amino Acid) will render more aqueous solubility, but the aqueous solubility is not restricting only to this. The zwitterionic format, and also dependent upon the temperature of solvation, intermolecular forces, H-bondings, rate of solubilization, etc.
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Can I use molecular sieves to dry D2O (one of the NMR solvents)? I know that sieves are used for water removal but will it work in D2O as well?
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Dear Virendrakumar, you cannot "dry" D2O. Deuterium is just another isotope of hydrogen which means that the two atoms are two sorts of the same chemical element. This is why D2O has the same chemical properties as water, i.e. chemically speaking it does not differ from normal water. The two compounds differ only in physical properties such as e.g. melting and boiling point. When we talk about drying of solvents used for NMR spectroscopy, we mean removing traces of water from organic solvents. These solvents can be miscible with water (CD3OD, acetone-d6, THF-d8 etc) or not (C6D6, toluene-d8 etc.).
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I am starting with HPLC techniques and I find a problem: no peaks are detected!.
My mobile phase is a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile, I am using a C18 column to separate tetraterpenoids. I injected my sample, that is a standard in a solvent that is totally miscible with the mobile phase I am using. I injected 40 microliters and the sample concentration is 60 microliters per mililiter.
I don't know what I am doing badly.. Does anyone know why I have no peaks in my chromatrogram?
The flow rate is ok, I have read literature to set HPLC conditions and flow is working properly...column is totally new
Thank you a lot!
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Is it the method, or is it the LC system, or is it user error?
  1. Run a test sample that is known to work. You should have done this when installing the column, because sometimes the manufacturer makes a mistake. This test tells you that the injector, pumps, detector, and, if the sample uses the same solvents as your analysis, one type of user error (correct solvent lines). when I can, I also run a reference standard, the compound I'm analyzing, to verify my method is correct.
  2. Assuming #1 works, look at the method. Are you using the correct gradient? Did you set the correct wavelength? If you are using a default wavelength, is it correct for the sample? 254 nm is a common default for some systems, but some compounds have no UV absorbance at that wavelength. Is the flow rate correct for the column size? If you are using other detectors, are they configured correctly? I read that you used the literature conditions- make sure those make sense. If they specify a detection wavelength, make sure it makes sense, and measure it on your own.
  3. User errors- I'm expert at these! Are the correct solvent lines chosen? Are the lines going to the correct bottles? Did you choose the correct sample? Make a mistake in making the sample? You didn't say what detector you are using, but I sometimes use an analog input- is the detector connected? Is the detector turned on? Dis you make the sample correctly? Is there solvent in the solvent bottles? Is the vial correct in the auto sampler? Is the compound in the sample?
Do you see a peak at the void volume?
We can only give general guidance since we don't know your HPLC system, column, method, or compound.
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Lyophilized antibody powder was dissolved in 1X PBST, but no Western signal was produced. Can you tell if it is a problem with the original antibody or a problem with the solvent PBST? Aren't antibodies usually dissolved in PBS?
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Soojin,
you can't conclude from a negative Westernblot that the problem is related to dissolving the antibody. There are many other things that can go wrong...
M
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How is that possible if the solvent molecules 'cancel' or "diminish' out the field of the ion?
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An ion in an electric field experiences a force F = qE. So assuming a constant E (as in a drift tube) you will always a force that is only proportional to the charge.
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Hello,
The solubility of my PVDF has decreased somehow and I believe this is due to changes in the molecular weight on the PVDF.
After 24 hours i'm finding my PVDF is not dissolving in room temperature mixture.
How do I increase solubility if I am not able to increase temperature as it will affect the characteristics of the end result PVDF after the process, I can't increase the shear rate of the mixing as this will increase the temperature too much.
Is trying to increase the solvent volume or concentration the only option to toggle with?
Many Thanks
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In the leaching process,Why does NaCl settle despite sieving?
How can we understand how much solvent the system needs?
And, how can enhance the mechanical strength in this process and find the optimum solvent?
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Dear Hamta Kordbacheh; I believe this source may be helpful
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Hello everybody. Do anyone here have a complete method for synthesis iodobutane using an SN2 Mechanism? The reagents are bromobutane, NaI and acetone as the aprotic solvent. I need the complete method, my professor wants the radio of reagentes and everything. I already have an ideia of what I have to do but would deeply aprecciate with someone could help me in this.
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I think you want to perform a Finkelstein reaction. You may find easily what you need on specialized website. For example Organic Chemistry Portal:
I hope my answer could help you.
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what solvents are the best to maintain buparvaquone activity in a 5% injectable form? is NMP good without the addition of DMSO?
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Dear Ola Whbe for some general information about the stability of buparvaquone please have a look at the following relevant article:
Exposure to ambient air causes degradation and decreased in vitro potency of buparvaquone and parvaquone
This paper has been posted as public full text on RG and can be freely downloaded as pdf file.
Also please see the following potentially useful reference:
Development and Validation of Stability Indicating Method for Estimation of Buparvaquone by Forced Degradation Studies
(see attached pdf file)
In the case of NMP you should perhaps consider possible toxic effects:
Toxicity of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP): teratogenic, subchronic, and two-year inhalation studies
Good luck with your research! 👍
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I try to run P NMR for a lignin extracted from biomass. 30 mg of lignin can be fully dissolve if I add 200 μl DMF and 50 μl pyridine mixture. But some solid will be precipitated out if I further add more than 200 μl CDCl3. However, the Bruker 300 MHz spectrophotometer we are using for the NMR can only give good result when more than 200 μl CDCl3 in 500 μl solvent. I'm wondering is there a way to solve this problem?
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It's very difficulty
I well to ask the same question
Thanks
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In nanoparticles synthesis the use of hydroalcohol solvent in soxhlet extraction is correct or not... and I need article reference for this.
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I carried out a laurdan titration to test different solvent polarity. I was testing new filters in the lab. I added laurdan to water, and carried out a titration. The same was done with ethanol and isopropanol. I worked out the generalised polarisation. For water I obtained +0.099; for ethanol I obtained -0.742 and for isopropanol I obtained -0.617. My question is: how does laurdan behaves in the solvents to obtain these results? Am I getting these results, because laurdan forms micelles in water, and inverted micelles in ethanol and isopropanol? So the tail is exposed to the solvent? but how do I explain the GP values?
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Yuri Mirgorod thank you very much for help, I really appreciate it. I will look at the thermal phase transition.
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Hi Everyone. My research is focused on the development of paper-based biosensors. I am currently developing the hydrophilic channels by using a regular office inkjet printer. During experiments, I used different solvents for dissolving wax, but the printer's nozzle got choked due to the volatile nature of the solvent. Please suggest an alternative working methodology to create hydrophilic and hydrophobic channels through inkjet printer using wax-ink without getting nozzle choked.
Also, please suggest any other methods to create a wax-ink for the office inkjet printer. Currently, I am using EPSON L130 for printing purposes.
Thanks
Vinay Kishnani
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Hi, to remain bio , you can use PEG with low mass like 400 or 1000
It s used for tooth paste for example
regards
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I have synthesized some organic substances for a specific biological activity. The final step involved the extraction of the substance using chloroform as a solvent. I left the extraction mixture in the hood for a while to let the chloroform evaporate. The NMR spectrum showed that chloroform was still found. I heated the substance at around 50C under vacuum in oven for 2 hours. No change was observed. I do not want to heat it at a higher temperature as the substance could be lost. I will be thankful for any suggestions.
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Dear all, you can use freeze drying, but becarefull this process may induce some alteration on some substances such nano- and bio- materials. My Regards
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The reaction of APTES with salicylaldehyde in ethanol leads to the formation of imine compound yellow solid which is mention in literature, but I am not getting yellow solid I don't know why?
when I kept a concentrated reaction mixture for a month I got solid but it's not soluble in ethanol or any other solvent.
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Dear Vikas Yadav thank you for asking this very interesting technical question. The Schiff base formed by reaction of APTES (= 3-aminopropyl(trimethoxy)silane) with salicylaldehyde has been frequently reported in the chemical literature. A straightforward synthetic procedure is described in the following useful article:
[email protected]/Schiff base complex of metal ions as an efficient and recyclable nanocatalyst for the green synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives
Fortunately this paper has been posted as public full text on RG and can be freely downloaded as pdf file.
In this article it is described that equimolar amounts of APTES and salicylaldehyde are dissolved in ethanol and stirred for six hours. After this time the resulting Schiff base should precipitate as yellow solid. I suggest that you run the reaction again under the described conditions. If no precipitate forms after six hours, you can partly remove some of the ethanol solvent until a yellow solid comes out. If you let the reaction mixture stand for too long (several weeks), chances are that hydrolysis occurs which leads to the observed insoluble material.
Good luck wth your research! 👍
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I have to isolate steroids from chloroform extract by fractionation, so please advice me for selection of mobile phase.
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It depends on an exhaustive study of TLC of extracts from that we can determined
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Solubility of Solids (solute) in Liquids (solvent):
  • In my specific case, the solid obtain plant tissue (trees).
  • Liquids or used solvents typically obtain organics and inorganics compounds. I will be waiting respectfully for your powerful expectations regarding the previous question.
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Dear Baru Debtera Bejena I'm sure that many RG members would be willing and able to answer your interesting technical question. However, it would be easier to give you a qualified answer of the question was a bit more specific. For example, you could specific what kind of organic compounds you want to extract and what parts of the trees (leaves, bark etc.) you want to use.
For some more general initial information please have a look at the following potentially useful articles:
Extraction and Isolation of Natural Organic Compounds from Plant Leaves Using Ionic Liquids
Extraction, Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Plants' Extracts
This article is freely accessible as public full text on RG.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Wood and Wood-Based Panels: Methods for Evaluation, Potential Health Risks, and Mitigation
(see attached pdf file)
Tree Coring to Assess Subsurface Volatile Organic Compound Contamination
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Hi,
I would like to know the interaction of butanone (MEK) and NBR(nitrile butadiene rubber) on a microstructural level .
Any informations or explanation would be of a great help for me.
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Dear all, I think still more details are needed, however if you are dealing with hydrogenated NBR the attached file may be usefull. My Regards
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Use PMDA (anhydride) + MDI (isocyanate) + NMP (solvent) as the precursor. When CO2 is not produced, add PEG 200 (polyol) as a chain extender. After drying in the oven, the film will break in the oven!
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Curing before drying, slow and low-temperature drying, and perhaps high viscosity solvent can do your job!
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Dear All,
I need to determine the amount of solid triclosan identified on a plastic patch.
Our lab's protocol can only perform the determination in water. The triclosan load in the water ranges between 0.01 mg/mL and 0.1mg/mL
Given the slow dissolution rate of triclosan in water, even with constant stirring, that amount of solid triclosan is unlikely to be 50% dissolved within 5 days and 100% with 10 days.
Bakhtiyor Karimov (October 25, 2016) in a memo suggested adding acetone to the water in a 0.05% (0.5mL acetone in 1L of water).
Will a 0.05% acetone in water solvent significantly accelerate the degradation of triclosan over 10 days and will it cause a bias in our lab's measurements?
Thank you for helping
Frederic
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How do I prepare a uniform azulene in MCH thin-films?
I tried various methods(drop-casting and spin-coating) to get the azulene sample to stick to the quartz glass but did not work including using a PMMA polymer, thorough cleaning of quartz glass slide with mixture of solvents in addition to plasma cleaning yet still I couldn't obtain a uniform azulene thin film.
Would you please give me some suggestions as to what I should do.
thank you so much for your response
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Dear Stephen Awuku thank you for your response. Infact, we never tried preparing azulene thin-films before. We are snthetic chemists and are more interested in the synthesis and structural caracterization of new compounds. In the case of azulene, our most recent publication reported the use of the azulene-1-carboxylate anion as building block for new supramolecular crystal structures:
Azulene‑1‑carboxylate - A new azulene-based building block for macromolecular assemblies
This article can be freely downloaded as public full text from RG. The azulene used in this study was prepared in our lab using an established literature procedure.
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i am currently working on PC/PMMA using THF/DMF solvents. for SEM images i need to do etching.
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I have mentioned a few solvents for PMMA at:
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I wanted to know if there is a solvent available that can dissolve poly(methylhydrosiloxane), but also can be evaporated to get back the same polymer afterwards?
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Dear Abhishek Pariyar, it is soluble in DMF, THF, and benzene. My Regards
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Need to form uniform coating of ZnO with readily available ZnO powder on a substrate. So which liquid solvent I need to use and which procedure I need to follow to prepare such solution? Very new to field of chemistry. Please help
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Which solvent is best to make a suspension of ZnTiO3 nanoparticles for FTO/ITO glass substrate coating to perform the electrochemical water splitting test.
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EX, L. and INNO, N., International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology...
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I am working in disposal of sanitary napkins
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NaOH, KOH, CaOH, BaOH, LiOH, etc. Have you been able to dissolve sodium polyacrylate with any of them?
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I am extracting oil from seeds using the soxhlet apparatus but all the procedures that I have seen call for a rotatory evaporator as the last step to evaporate the hexane. I don't have a rotatory evaporator so I was looking for other valid and accurate ways to evaporate the solvent. Can I use a water bath?
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Yes, definately you can use with some precautions.
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I was able to exfoliate a thin film from a substrate using the adeshive tape method, now i requiere to make a small hole on the tape, so i can measure the luminicence of the film and not the procuded by the tape. Acethone seems to slowly dissolve the tape could any one recommed anothe solvent or process, thanks in advance
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Dear all, cellophane is a cellulosic based material, so better to search the best solvents for cellulose. Please check the following items. My Regards
DOI: 10.5772/52144
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Hi
The polymer material used in this study was polyurethane
(PU), dissolved in a mixture of two solvents: N,Ndimethylformamide
(DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) by
weight ratios of 2:3 respectively.but did not solve.we dont knowe why?
please helpe me
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I use thi silvent:
commercial name :Metanol 2methylpropan
The SOLVENT MAIKA
Cod : 400010
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the DES i'm working on is thymol:camphor
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Dear Nida Anis, thymol based DES's are hydrophobic. They have poor solvation power to salts such as sodium carbonate. This may explain the turbidity seen. My Regards
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As weighing anthocyanin standard (keracyanin chloride; ACN STD) is very difficult and risky, the plan is to dissolve ACN STD with analytical solvent which is not soluble with water or alcohol (Information source: https://www.scbt.com/p/keracyanin-chloride-18719-76-1#:~:text=In%20other%20studies%2C%20Keracyanin%20chloride,through%20inhibition%20of%20α-glucosidase.&text=Solubility%20%3A,Soluble%20in%20water%2C%20and%20alcohol.); thus, what solvent is suitable for dissolving ACN STD without contaminating it?
After that, the desiccant is used to dry analytical solvent; thus, what desiccant is suitable without contaminating ACN STD?
Link of research papers or video from official source will be helpful, but it's optional.
This question is related to 'How to transfer ACN STD correctly?' previously, and a video demo can be watched for better understanding.
Thank you.
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My drugs are insoluble in water and 5% alcohol, 5% DMSO as well. It fully dissolves in ethyl acetate however it is toxic for cells.
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There are several organic solvents that have been used in in vitro mammalian cell assays. Typically 1% final concentration of the solvent in the culture medium is used, but you should validate the maximum percentage that is compatible with your cells and assay system. Try dissolving your drug in the solvent before adding to the culture medium rather than attempting to dissolve it in diluted solvent. You can try DMSO, ethanol, methanol, THF, acetone, and others that you can find using an internet search. Also check other questions on Researchgate, such as this one.
Good luck, Peter
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Hi, I'm looking for some materials with small molecular weight (~ hundreds g/mol) that are not dissolved in cyclohexane but dissolved in toluene or other organic solvents.
If you know any of them, please help me.
Thanks.
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It will be hardy any compound with absolutly no solubility in cyclohexane and excellent solubility in toluene.
I would suggest some extended flat aromatics like perylene.
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PET does not allow much thermal space to play with annealing and can be dissolved by very strong organic solvents such as DMF and DMSO. What alternative solvents that won't dissolve plastics and don't require much annealing can be used instead? I only know of MA/CH3CN solution.
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DMSO, GBL, NMP, DMAC
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My Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles are synthesized in the presence of sulfate (SO4-) ions.
I see S impurity in my samples even after thorough washing with water.
I suspect that Sulphate ions adhere to the nanoparticles' surface as a ligand and they need more than just washing with water to be removed.
I am looking for a solvent that can help the removal of sulfate without changing the characteristics of my nanoparticles.
#sulphate #ligand #aluminum #hydroxide #nanoparticle #sulphur
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Dear Hadi Maghsoudiganjeh thank you for your very interesting technical question. Personally I'm wondering what the sulfate in the synthesis of your Al(OH)3 nanoparticles is good for and where it comes from? Would it be possible for you to employ alternative synthetic procedures? In this context please have a look e.g. at the following relevant articles:
Synthesis of colloidal aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles for transparent luminescent polymer nanocomposite films
Synthesis of aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles from the residue of aluminum anodization for application in polymer materials as antiflame agents
Preparation of dispersed aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles via non-aqueous route and surface modification
The first two articles are freely available as public full texts on RG. Other potentially helpful articles can be found and accessed by using the "Search" function of RG. Just search for the term "aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles" and then click on "Publications":
P.S. Please not that the sulfate anion is SO42–, not SO3 (sulfur trioxide). Good luck with your research and please stay safe and healthy!
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I want to uniformly disperse dried zirconia nanoparticles in any appropriate solvent.
Simply adding into deionized water under stirring and ultrasonication is not working.
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Dear Obaid Ullah Noor, a number of surfactants have been investigated in the following documents. My Regards
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The manual for Sephadex LH-20 says this: "Resuspend and pour the media slurry into the column in one continuous motion. Fill the reservoir to the top with buffer."
However, I saw another procedure which says: "Fill the column reservoir to the top with solvent."
Does packing this include buffer or just solvent?
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It depends on your purification, and the sort of compound you are purifying.
LH-20 is often used with no buffer, especially when the purification uses only organic solvents. some aqueous purifications don't need buffer, either, while some do.
It is common to buffer proteins; some smaller molecules with ionizable functional groups also benefit from buffering.
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I have obtained 4 organic exteacts of different solvents i.e. hexane extract, ethylacetate extact, methanol extract and choloroform extract from a ant species.
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@Md. Yusuf Al-Amin, well said!
@Subhrakanta Jena, the solvents you can try includes n-hexane, petroleum ether, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, methanol etc.
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We want to sterilize Mg samples to test for cytotoxicity in cell culture by sonicating the samples in ethanol, IPA, and ddH2O, but we do not own a blast-proof sonicator. I have found alternative protocols for sonicating samples in alcohol solvents but no official publications. Are there any established methodologies for sonicating materials like our Mg coupons in alcohol without having to purchase a blast-proof sonicator? We are using a Bransonic Ultrasonic Bath for this assay.
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Hi,
I do not really understand what are you planning to do. What are Mg samples? Mg(II) complexes or metallic Mg?
If you mean Mg(II) complexes, then sonication must be safe (of course if there are no potentially explosive components. Mg(II) itself is NOT explosive).
If you mean metallic Mg, then you must know that it reacts with oxygen, water (slowly when cold, rapidly when heated) and with alcohol as well (giving alcoholates). If you put Mg into any of these media, you will result in more or less rapid corrosion, not sterilization - even without sonification.
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I'm looking for a PES solution with alternative solvent for injection treatments in oilfield.
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