Science topic

Solubility - Science topic

The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
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In order to inject a solution of aflatoxin toxin (B1) into mice, I need a reference for its LD50 value.
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Search for ld 50 aflatoxin on the internet and you will find numerous data e.g. in Wikipedia!!
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Dear colleagues, i am working on quercetin but i found problems in solubility. i dissolve it in DMSO for making stock solution (30 mg/kg) then i made dilution in PBS buffer. unfortunately, the drug precipitated. i could not use DMSO (100%) for injection in vivo as it has some adverse effects. Did anyone have this issue before and how to solve it. thanks in advance
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Mahran Emam Did you find how to dissolve the quercetin to use in vivo? I will use it or I want to use it intraperitoneal, and I don't know wich choose, the one thar said Quercetin hydrate, or the one is not, is solid. I will purchase it in Sigma-Aldrich, but it is disconcert to me which I have to purchase.
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I'm trying to make a solution for haptoglobin measurement using this product. My method gives me the following directions:
0.6g o-dianisidine, 13g sodium phosphate monobasic and 0.5g EDTA dissolved in 1l deionised water, pH adjusted to 4.1.
I know that o-dianisidine is only slightly soluble in water (60mg/l) but possibly more soluble under acidic conditions however it still did not totally dissolve when at pH 4.1
If I dissolved in alcohol, approx (50ml) does anyone know if the addition of the alcohol to my buffer will affect the assay result ?
Anyone have experience with this colorimetric assay for haptoglobin? solving the same amount in
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Hello Alison, did you been able to disolve O-dianisine in your haptoglobin determination experiments?
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The halogen salt of zirconium has some Lewis acidity and DMF is a Lewis base. I expect that there is an acid/base interaction which enhance the solubility.
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How do I estimate the number of molecules of drug that will be loaded in my dendrimer formulation by phase solubility studies ?
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No thanks, in the first attached file there are good references dealing with phase-solubility behavior of dendrimer-drug. These are additional documents. My Regards
10.1517/17425255.4.8.1035
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How can we say whether the solubility of Ar is more or less than CO2. To be precise how many times more or less is the solubility of Ar in Sea water than CO2?
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Outside my field, but the comparison must be made under conditions acidic enough so that only CO2 is present, unless there is some smart modelling
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Solution by modifying baffle and aeration based on available DO in the medium.
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If possible, decreasing temperature and increasing pressure. In case of bacteria, airlifting is also used.
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I am a phd research scholar working on cilostazol. I have to give cilostazol i.p route. it is available in the form of powder which is soluble in chloroform, ethanol, methanol.
please let me know .
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Dear Sadgunottama GOUD Kamparaj sorry to see that your interesting technical question has not yet received any expert answers. Just in case that this issue is still of interest to you, please have a look at the following potentially useful article entitled:
Pharmaceutical Dispersion Techniques for Dissolution and Bioavailability Enhancement of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs
Cilostazol is mentioned in reference 138. This paper has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that it can be freely downloaded as pdf file. In any case I wish you good luck with your research work!
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I am conducting a CO2 electrolysis experiment in aqueous medium, where I will be stirring the medium with a magnetic stirrer. I read in the paper linked below that a perpendicular magnetic field (to the surface of the electrode) of more than 1 T can improve bubble dispersion and thus solubility.
As I am stirring my medium with a magnetic stirrer, I was wondering whether such effect would apply to my system. But I am not sure about the strength and direction of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic induction stirrer. Is it ≥ 1 Tesla? And what is its direction?
Thanks
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The discussed equipment is ordinary magnetic stirrer for liquids in which a magnetic piece rotates due to the magnetic field of another. The rotation of the latter is controlled electrically. For electrically operated small magnetic stirrer the field would be ~ 1kG but not ~1T.
Since the medium is field sensitive, it is desirable to measure the magnetic field by a guass-meter.
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Kindly share the Cu-C phase diagram and related source/reference of that. It'll be helpful.
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Hello.
Copper practically does not interact with carbon. Everything is determined by the temperature of the process, if we consider the method of powder metallurgy. I have been researching this issue for a long time. If it will be interesting to talk, write to the mail: [email protected].
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Dear RG colleagues,
Can you guys please give me some tips to dissolve Devazepide (CCKA(1) Receptor inhibitor)) to inject safely with correct dose to mice?
I saw that it was well dissolved to DMSO but when I further add PBS, it become hazy.
Adding Tween 20, 80 or PEG my increase the solubility of Devazepide but they are not yet available in our lab and also concern about the safety and side effect for the mice.
Thank you very much in advance for your kind help!
Best,
Trung
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Dear Trung Trần Quang many thanks for your kind response and explanation. I do not have any personal experiences as we are inorganic chemists. However, the published procedures apparently vary significantly. In the article cited below it is stated that
"Devazepide was dissolved as a 1 mg mL–1 stock solution in a 7:3 (v v–1) mixture of PEG 400 and glycerine. The stock solution was stored at 4 °C and was
diluted in 0.5 mL of saline prior to injection."
At least the authors here specify the exact amounts.
PEGylated cholecystokinin is more potent in inducing anorexia than conditioned taste aversion in rats
In the study cited below the devazepide was use as suspension:
CCK-A receptor antagonists have selective effects on nutrient-induced food intake suppression in rats
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I can calculate the solubility of a polymer molecule of small molecular weight at different temperatures. How can I determine the solubility of the same polymer having a large molecular weight with the same result? Is there any conversion formula?
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Dear Pallab Das, I don't think that such a conversion exist. It is better to think using the cohesive energy density (CED) which increases with polymer MW, but not as a regular function. This is because when increasing MW other parameters arise and interfer with the ease of solubility, to mention : spatial arrengements and entanglements of chains. These hinder the ease of solvent diffusion. Also you have to consider that when choosing the solvent to low MW polymer by taking the closest solubility parameter value, for sure such a value will be far away for high MW polymer. This means if the solvent is good for low MW, will not be so good for high MW. Example water is a good solvent for PEG's but some PEO's (high MW PEG's) are extremely difficult to solubilize in water. My Regards
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Hopefully this is not a stupid question, but I have problems finding information about this. This question is especially targeted for adhesives. A relatively large amount of NaOH is needed to catalyze the polymerization reaction between phenol and formaldehyde. As it only functions as a catalyst, it is not consumed. When making plywood, what happens to the NaOH? Is it simply trapped within the polymer matrix, or is is pushed out of the curing polymer as its solubility decreases? Is it not problematic?
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Dear Alexander, thank you for posting this interesting technical question. This is absolutely not a stupid question. In fact, I never really thought about this, and many references about phenol-formaldehyde adhesives / resins simply do not mention what the fate of the added NaOH catalyst is. I assume that part of it just remains in the polymer. In this context I found two relevant articles which could provide some useful hints. This first paper is entitled:
Effect of synthesis parameters on thermal behavior of phenol–formaldehyde resol resin
Unfortunately this article has not been posted as public full text on RG, but perhaps you can access it through your institution. It is mentioned in this study that NaOH can react with formaldehyde to give methanol and sodium formiate, Na+HCOO. This shows that the added NaOH does not necessarily remain unchanged in the polymerization process.
The second article is entitled:
NaOH and Ba(OH)2 Compound Catalyzed Phenol-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Copolycondensation Resin Adhesive for Recombined Bamboo
In this study NaOH and Ba(OH)2 were used alternatively as catalysts. The authors point out that the experimental results showed that the NaOH and Ba(OH)2 catalyst shortened the curing time of the phenol-formaldehyde adhesive and also ensured suitable water solubility of the adhesive. Thus apparently it has certain advantages to have remaining NaOH in the polymer.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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i will examine the soluble form of negative immune checkpoint inhibitors ....
my question
what the function of membraneous PD-1
and what be the function of soluble PD-1????????
and as well as
what the function of CD4 membrane bound and soluble form of CD4 what be the function in peripheral circulation?
is presence as a metabolic process or cell aging process or its presence have a unique purpose? what regulates the level of membrane form and soluble form for any immune marker
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A type of drug that blocks proteins called checkpoints that are made by some types of immune system cells, such as T cells, and some cancer cells. These checkpoints help keep immune responses from being too strong.
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I'm following the instructions here to create a 3D printable bioink but after i freeze dry my samples, they only partially dissolve in water. I tried heating with a stir bar too and it would still not completely dissolve. In the paper, they describe their Sil-MA composite as a powder after freeze drying but my sample is more similar to a strong Styrofoam. I cannot grind it up with a mortar and pestle and cutting it is very difficult. I've had relative success dissolving it in formic acid but but i think the acidic environment hinders crosslinking so I'd perfer to use water as the solvent instead. Any ideas?
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Dear Kyle Printon, I think freeze drying has introduced denaturation of silk. My Regards
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Hi all,
I'm looking for molecules (molecular weight > 400 g/mol) soluble in both water and non-polar oils, such as cyclohexane.
I hope the molecule is partitioned in each phase (water and non-polar oil).
Please let me know if you know any of them.
Thanks!
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The Extended Hansen model is used for this purpose, but it is the best?, is there any others?
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Thank you Elmira. I will search for the original paper of Jouyban-Acree
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are soluble PD-1 compete with membrane PD-1 to prevent membrane PD-1 from interacting with PD-L1?
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yes that's right
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I'd like to prepare a solution of MoCl3. According to the supplier, MoCl3 is soluble in nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and insoluble in water and dilute hydrochloric acid.
Does anyone work with MoCl3? I'd like to prepare a solution of MoCl3 with a concentration between 0.1 and 1 M but not using nitric acid as it will give (MoO4)2- species. I need to obtain the Mo3+ species.
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You may prepare solution of MoCl3 in 5-6 M HCl but the work is to be done in a Ar or N2 - filled box or in isolated vessel filled with N2.
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I have a sample soluble in water. To carry out the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), which organic volatile solvent is recommended? It is also soluble in DMSO, however DMSO is not a volatile solvent. It is also not soluble in Ether, DCM, EA, EtOH, Hexane, CHCl3, etc. For example, the reaction is A + B --> C, here A & C are soluble in Ether, DCM, EA, EtOH, Hexane, CHCl3 but B is not, whereas B is soluble in water but not in Ether, DCM, EA, EtOH, Hexane, CHCl3. The eluent I am using for the TLC experiment is Hexane:EA. Two maerials (A & C) are responding in the Hexane:EA = 2:8 to 5:5, however B is not. In fact, B is not responding in Hexane:EA = 2:8 to 9:1. Kindly suggest. Thank you in advance.
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Thank you for the suggestion.
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Hi everyone,
I'm trying to improve the solubility of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in common vegetable oils (soybean/sunflower) in an liquid product to be used at 298 K. So far I've tried the following:
1) Formulate an emulsion (unstable in time and you need specialized equipment)
2) Reduce viscosity of the solvent by adding a cosolvent like a fatty acid (C18, no luck)
Knowing that the solvent has to be a food-grade oil, could you please suggest any ideas or recommendations to choose a suitable solvent for this application?
Thanks
Andres
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If there is a publication or report available with the solubility of some of solid organic peroxides.
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Dear Grzegorz, this is clearly a very interesting technical question. In the past we worked with different kinds of explosives, mainly nitrogen rich energetic compounds. For solid organic peroxides I suggest that you have a look at the following potentially useful links:
Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of organic peroxide pool fires
(TBPB and TBPEH)
Hazard Assessment of and Recommendations for an Organic Peroxide Synthesis
and
Investigation of Organic Peroxides and their Properties as Energetic Materials
These are PhD theses which are all freely available as public full texts (please see attached pdf files).
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If yes, kindly share energy input values and carbon emission equivalents for biological sources like Phosphorus solublizing bacteria (PSB) and AM fungi.
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Agree with Abhijeet Singh
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I've been looking around to find something to tell me what will dissolve 1-octodecene? But I've not found anything real conclusive.
I did find something that said it was soluble in Alcohol, Ketones, et. all. What I'm interested in knowing is just how soluble is 1-ODE in 2-propanol, or Ketones.
I don't really have access to said chemical or otherwise I'd check myself.
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Dear Charles, thank you for this interesting technical question. In this context please have a look at the useful link cited below. It is stated there that 1-octadecene is soluble in alcohol, acetone, ether, and petroleum (insoluble in water). I assume that the term alcohol includes isopropanol. I hope this helps.
In this context please note that at higher temperatures 1-octadecene can spontaneously polymerize:
The Trouble with 1-Octadecene; Polymerization During Nanocrystal Synthesis
Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I want to purify my insoluble organic compound from sodium chloride through washing.
I have done my first trial with distilled water having tds approx 44 p.p.m and the second with fresh ground water having tds approx 500 p.p.m.
The results differs in both trials.
So how t.d.s and hard minerals affects the solubility of sodium chloride in water?
how can i calculate the ratio of solubility based on water quality (t.d.s).
Suggestions are highly appreciated.
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Each water has a capacity to dissolve any solute. After reaching such level, the water is saturated. Thus, it is not surprizing to see high TDS water has lower capacity to dissolve NaCl, compared low TDS one
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I have a limited amount of Quercetin and I want to know if it is completely soluble in THF!!
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Calculating the polarity of the keratin by the Fedors method, the polarity is 33.84 MPa ^ 1/2, the polarity of (THF) tetrahydrofuran is 18.15 MPa^1/2. In addition to the above, and taking into account the data presented by Mina Karimi-Avargani, the probability that keratin is soluble THF is low.
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Hello, I performed Plasminogen gelatin zymography on total soluble protein extracts and purified samples of tissue plasminogen activator. I was expecting more activity of purify sample than total soluble protein but I got less activity of purify samples! Anybody with this experience?
The attachments is Zymogram gel.
Thank you for your guidance
Shiva
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Thank you for your kind reply, do you have an idea about this question that why the purified sample did not work as total protein extraction?
Best
Shiva
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I am incorporating di/tripeptides into an anhydrous reaction carried out in either DMF or DMSO but have encountered solubility issues with the peptides I have used so far, being far more water-soluble. Which amino acids typically confer high solubility in either of these solvents?
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Of course, the hydrophilic residues containing AA (Amino Acid) will render more aqueous solubility, but the aqueous solubility is not restricting only to this. The zwitterionic format, and also dependent upon the temperature of solvation, intermolecular forces, H-bondings, rate of solubilization, etc.
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I perform subcellular fractionation experiments (cytoplasmic, soluble nuclear fractions, and chromatin-bound fractions) to see the effect of different treatments on my proteins of interest, which are between 32-37 kDa. I use alpha-tubulin for cytoplasmic fraction and H3 for a chromatin-bound fraction. Still, I didn't find a good marker for the soluble nuclear fraction to be more or less than 32-37 kDa. Please, if could anyone suggest to me which soluble nuclear markers could be useful in my case.
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I used HDAC3 as a soluble nuclear marker (50 kDa). I performed sub cellular fractionation with HEK293 cells.
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Hello,
The solubility of my PVDF has decreased somehow and I believe this is due to changes in the molecular weight on the PVDF.
After 24 hours i'm finding my PVDF is not dissolving in room temperature mixture.
How do I increase solubility if I am not able to increase temperature as it will affect the characteristics of the end result PVDF after the process, I can't increase the shear rate of the mixing as this will increase the temperature too much.
Is trying to increase the solvent volume or concentration the only option to toggle with?
Many Thanks
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I'm looking for a simple method (spectrophotometric , precipitation....) for routine measurement of copper in wastewater that contains 100 to 1000 mg/l soluble Copper
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Dear Paul
Thank you for answering
Yes but not for a big number of samples
Regards
Tahar
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When the Cu(II)Cl2 is dissolved in ethanol:DI water (70:30, v:v), the solution becomes turbid. Normally, Cu(II)Cl2 is soluble in ethanol and DI water, but it is not 100% soluble in ethanol:DI water mixture.
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Dear Mehmet Ozturk thank you for this interesting technical question. According to the Wikipedia entry cited below, the solubility of CuCl2 in both ethanol and water is quite high:
Ethanol: 53 g/100 mL (15 °C)
Water: 75.7 g/100 mL (25 °C)
For more information, please also have a look at the following useful link:
When you mention that the solution becomes turbid, chances are that due to some slightly basic conditions Cu(OH)2 precipitates. In that case the turbidity can be removed by adding a few drops of HCl. Otherwise you can also try filtration to obtain a clear solution again.
Good luck and best wishes!
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Hi,
I am investigating the solubility of PVDF in a solvent. I have reached at point at after 18-24 hours the PVDF is still not fully dissolved in the solvent.
Unable to change the solvent, I'm wondering the effect sonication may have on the speeding up the dissolution process. While this will increase the dissolution rate, i'm wondering the effecting it may have on the dissolved PVDF. will it effect the characteristics?
Also would the sonification just reduce agglomeration? And instead would it just achieve increased dispersion in the mixture instead of preferred full molecular dissolution?
Thanks
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Definitely, the final characteristics of the solution can be affected. In the end, in theory, the solubility should be the same, but with the use of sonication the dissolution rate could be increased.
However, I am concerned about the integrity of the polymer .... a good option would be to add small amounts of polymer and allow it to solvate / hydrate, and repeat the procedure until saturation is reached. After obtaining that solution, you should compare it with the solution in which sonication was used. (Quite possibly the physicochemical characteristics change). But if they do not change, you will have obtained a more adequate methodology to prepare the solution.
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Hi, I am a chemistry undergraduate doing my dissertation project on HPLC. In my project, I need to predict the HPLC retention time of 20 aromatic molecules, the calibration set. To do this I will require a large database of the retention time and other chemical properties such as logP, polarizability, dipole moment or intrinsic solubility in water of between 100 and 1000 molecules. these molecules will constitute the training set. I was therefore wondering whether you know of any databases which contain data on retention time and various other chemical properties.
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Pietro: I am sorry to say that I do not think you will be satisfied with this choice. It does not take into account the basic fundamentals of liquid chromatography. * "Retention time" (rT) data are only valid for specific methods. Retention times are not fixed values under all conditions. Peak order can change as conditions change. rT's change when the methods used to obtain them change. So any database used would have to contain sample data from just one HPLC method on the exact same HPLC system, acquired on the same day.
The proposed demonstrations have been done many times by others. Google search for many examples. Some employed neural network analysis! Commercial software products can be purchased for chromatographic retention time (rT) prediction (though they do not work very well, unless many of the parameters and mode of chromatography are locked-down in advance. Good for training though). The quality of the data obtained is always limited by the training data set used and the similarity it has to the final samples used as 'test candidates'. Someone with proper HPLC method development knowledge is not likely to use them as we can generally develop better methods in less time using our experience to guide us (great job security as no software based systems can come close).
Background: The predictive software and methods start by first collecting lots of data points (samples) from ONE HPLC Method (same HPLC system, column and dimensions, flow rate, delay volume, detector, same parameters, same integration settings and so on). As noted, this has been reported before for generalized samples and depending on the mode of chromatography used, simple patterns emerge for some samples, based on simple properties. However, in the real word of HPLC analysis, many samples show multiple interactions with the chromatography support (NOT just one, which would make it easy). This is why predictions based on just a single property alone may be unreliable.
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I am trying to test Anthracene (An) on the cells and I could not dissolve An in buffer solution and even in ethanol the solubility is very poor. DMSO is not working as well! for my experiment I prefer using buffer solution HBSS , ehanol or DMSO (generally not more 1% from ethanol or DMSO). How can I dissolve anthracene and prepare the dilutions without using Ethanol or any type pf alcohols or with a tiny amount of ethanol not exceed 1%?
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Dear Aseel Alsarahni thank you for asking this interesting technical question. It is well known that the solubility of anthracene in organic solvents in generally fairly low. There are, however, sgnificant differences. There is the old rule ""similia similibus solvuntur" which means that the best solvents are similar in chemical character. Since anthracene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, I would suggest to try toluene as solvent, which is also an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent. According to the Wikipedia entry cited below, the solubility of anthracene in toluene is about 10 times higher than that in ethanol. It should also be possible to add a very small amount of ethanol to the solution in toluene if necessary.
Good luck with your work! 👍
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Kindly experts can any body tell me in which solvent weed biochar( Parthenium, Cannabis and Lantana) is soluble? As I want to have NMR analysis for weed biochar. Thanks
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Dear Samina Allahyar many thanks for your interesting technical question. According to the link cited below biochar is "is a carbonaceous product obtained on pyrolysing any substance containing biomass" (in your case the biomass was Parthenium, Cannabis and Lantana). As a carbonaceous product, biochar comprises "high porosity, large surface area, surplus surface functional groups and high adsorption capacity".
Biochar: a sustainable solution
This article has been posted as public full text on RG and can be freely downloaded as pdf file.
What biochar does not have is high solubility! There may be some soluble components present in the biochar, but it is not a well-defined compound that can be easily dissolved for NMR experiments. No organic solvents will completely dissolve your samples. What you can try, however, is solid-state NMR (CP/MAS). For more information about this please have a look at the following relevant article:
Characterization of Biochars Using Advanced Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
I hope this clarifies the issue. Good luck with your research! 👍
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Hello,
I'm interested in knowing if cannabidiol is stable for long term storage in methanol or DMSO in recommended solubility mix for biological studies and in which conditions.
Thanks.
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I use CBD from CAYMAN. After dilution better aliquot and store in -20 oC.
Solubility
  • DMF: 50 mg/ml
  • DMSO: 60 mg/ml
  • DMSO:PBS (1:3): 250 µg/ml
  • Ethanol: 35 mg/ml
  • Methanol: 30 mg/ml
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I have a query regarding solubility of NaOH in DMF at Room Temperature. When we are trying to dissolve NaOH in DMF at RT, it is not dissolving properly. I want to know the solubility of NaOH in DMF at RT.
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Concerning to drying sodium hydroxide (pellets), you may want to check the following RG discussion: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_granular_sodium_hydroxide_be_dried_in_an_oven
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I'm exploring the world of emulsions, but I'm not sure if it is the correct way to solve my problem.
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I wonder which solvents the linear polyglycerol(PG)s are soluble except water, methanol?
Or is the linear PG soluble in ether? I heard that it has partial solubility in ether. If so, can i precipitate the PG with MeOH/ether?
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soluble in n-heptane
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Hi. I am looking for ethyl methyl carbonate Hansen solubility parameters.
There is no data in Google.
How can I know the value?
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Thank U! In fact, I already found that software, but I can not afford it. Anyway have a good day :-)
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I am looking for 4-Nitroquinoline-oxide solubility in acetone, DMSO and ethanol.
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From MSDS ( Material & Safety data sheet ) you can guess .https://www.msdsonline.com/sds-search/
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Can any give suggestions regarding to the calculation of estimation of Total soluble sugars or total carbohydrates by anthrone method.
Please help me
Thanking you.
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Hello
I am currently searching for literature about amino acid propensities to exclusively form certain secondary structures regardless of what kind of peptide or protein do they form (e.g. membrane, cytosolic, soluble, globular protein etc). What are your thoughts on this one?
May you also recommend literature to support your answer. This would help me give a mechanistic basis of secondary structure formation from a given set of amino acid residues.
Thank you very much.
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There is no absolute rule, only probablistic determinations.
Biro, J. Amino acid size, charge, hydropathy indices and matrices for protein structure analysis. Theor Biol Med Model 3, 15 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4682-3-15
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I removed the axial chloride by cyanide it shows significant color change and as well as strong cyanide signal in the IR, however I tried several recrystallization conditions but unable to get the single crystal, my complex has PZPY system and solubility in DMF and Methanol is quite good and partially soluble in other ACN and THF , I tried most of common solvent however, unable to grow the crystal, if anyone has good suggestions or ideas are much appreciated!!
Thanks in advance
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Dear Manmath Narwane many thanks for your very interesting technical question which is certainly of general interest to many RG members. Just in case you encounter a similar problem again: Growing suitable single's-crystals e.g. for single-crystal X-ray diffraction can be more tricky and tedious than making the compound. You can either try different solvents or solvent mixtures or use a different crystallization technique. For more general information please have a look at the following very useful guides which are all freely available as public pdf files:
How to Grow Single Crystals for X-ray Analysis by Solution Crystallisation
Growing Quality Crystals
Crystal Growing Tips and Methods
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Hi,
I am working on a project which requires me to know the concentration of the gas soluted in the liquid.
I know the solubility(900 [H2]/M and 1.387 g/ml), Henry's constant(370 kH/MPaa) and Viscosity(85 cP). Additionally, the pressure is 1 atm, the temperature is 273K, the gas consists of 1% H2 and 99% N2 (v/v). Since the gas is continuously put in by a digital mass-flow controller, so the partial pressure of H2 can be considered as constant.
Can I calculate the concentration of H2 in this liquid based on the information above?
Thank you!
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Dear Bin Liu, Henry's Law. Please check the following links. My Regards
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For example, if I get some pure ethanol (99%) and dilute it down to 70% (let's say I add 700uL ethanol and 300uL water to make around 70% ethanol) can I use this to make up my compound?
Thank you.
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The effect of changing your solvent by adding water will depend on the compound you intend to dissolve. Polarity is an important point to consider regarding this question.
95% ethanol has a polarity index of 5.4, whereas 75% ethanol has a polarity index of 6.2. Once you reach 20% ethanol it reaches 8.2.
Consider the effect of the polarity of your molecule and how addition of water might improve or worsen the solubility.
Polarity ref: Solvent Selection via Miscibility Number", Godfrey, Norman B., Chemtech, 1972
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Hello,
I have a vial of powder containing 200 units/mg protein. The solubility is 1mg/ml H2O.
Then if I add 1ml of H2O, I will have 100 units/mg protein stock.
Overall, I need some 20 units/mg aliquots for my experiment.
How can I achieve this? Also, is it correct that I add 1ml H2O to 200units/mg protein I will get 100 units/mg?
Thank you.
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Dear Rh Rj ,
The term unit (U) is mostly used for enzymes and is defined as the amount of the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of one micromole of substrate per minute under the specified conditions of the assay method (https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/ci-2018-0319/html).
If 1 mg protein equals 200 units then once making a 1 mg/mL solution this still represents 200 units (200 units/mL solution). If you need to add 20 units/mg (or 20 units/mL solution) you add 0.1 mL of your stock solution to the assay mixture you want to perform.
Hope this answers your question.
Best regards.
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Hallo,
i am looking for a non coordinating solvent that dissolves anhydrous FeCl2 for a synthesis in which i can not use solvents like thf, pyridin etc..
I already tried benzene (no solubility), toluene (no solubility), DCM (no solubility), Chlorbenzene (maybe slightly soluble) and Flourbenzene (maybe sligthly soluble).
Any suggestions are welcomed.
Cheers
Stefan
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FeCl2 (also FeCl3) is readily soluble in acetonitrile.
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I have different OD values and different tissue weight.. and when calculating it the lower tissue weight content the greater value thn the higher tissue weight !! I couldn't get the proper results..can anyone help me to find out results!!??
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What method have you used to measure your absorbance?
Also, note "...the total concentration of protein in the sample can be deduced from the concentration of tryptophan and tyrosine residues that reduce the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent."
The concentration of the residues reduce the reagent's concentration. If you calculate in terms of the total amount instead of the amount reduced you can run into problems.
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I want to compare my result with other studies.
Exchangeable Al (Al3+) in this analysis using cmol (+)/kg that equal with meq/100g. However, many works use the different unit on presenting the exchangeable Al values.
A. µM as a unit for soluble Al.
For example (Cristancho, Hanafi, Syed Omar, & Rafii, 2014) reported at low pH 4.38, a total soluble Al value was 251.9 µM = 251.9 µmol.
Molar mass of Al = 26.981539 g/mol = 26.981536 mg/mmol = 26.981536 µg/µmol.
The total soluble Al = 251.9 µmol x 26.981536 µg/µmol = 6,796.64892 µg/kg = 6.80 mg/kg
6.80 mg/kg = 6.80 mg/kg: 90* = 0.07 cmol (+)/kg
So, the total soluble Al 251.9 µM = 0.07 cmol (+)/kg.
B. Al in mmol (+) /kg.
(Gomes, Gonçalves, Rocha, & Menegale, 2019) reported that in pH 3.9, the values of Al was 17 mmol/kg
17 mmol (+) /kg = 17 cmol (+)/kg: 10 = 1.7 cmol (+)/kg
C. Al in ppm
(Haug & Foy, 1984) summarized that aluminum become soluble at pH< 5, at concentrations 1 and 30 ppm.
ppm = mg/l = mg/kg
30 ppm = 30 mg/kg
30 mg/kg: 90* = 0.33 cmol (+)/kg
Note: *converting mg/kg Al to cmol (+)/kg by divide mg/kg Al by 90 (source: https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/127276/Chemical-tests.pdf).
Is that correct?
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Thank you
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Im trying to dissolve PEO Mv= 100,000 in water. Is anybody know what is the approximately range of solubility in water? Should I expect transparent mmix after powder is fully dissolved?
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Thank you Andrei Blasko
I have notice that after 16 h of mixing in DI water, mix is hazy but without visible powder. After filtration (10 microns) the mix is more transparent. I attached the pic of mix before and after filtration.
However, after 24 h the mix is staring to be hazy again, and probably PEO is coming of from solution. Am I doing something wrong?
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Hi everyone,
A part from cellulose acetate and pmma, what polymers are out there that are not soluble in water, but are soluble in ethanol, methanol, acetone, or low toxicity solvents? I'm avoiding chloroform and acetic acid!
Thanks
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Dear all, PEG's are water soluble. May be polyacrylonitrile and polyvinyle chloride will reach the requirements. My Regards
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Hi, I'm investigating the solubility of a substance (A) in a solvent (B), by repetitive addition of small quantity of A in to B and shake the mixture.
I already reached the stage where 24hr shaking could not fully dissolve A. But when I sonicate the mixture, A fully dissolved! This was repeated several time.
To my knowledge, sonication only speeds up the dissolution process, not increase the solubility of a substance. Or is it really the latter?
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We have developed drug/co-former by co-crystal formation, in this case, we don't know how to distinguish the co crystal whether in really co-crystal formation or salt formation??
In solubility, both of them can increase the solubility of drug, meanwhile the thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) showed shifting higher of melting point peak (the melting point of drug is lower than that of co-former)
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one can also use XPS our recent paper
Cryst. Growth Des. 2021, 21, 735−747
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Hi all,
Is the rate of dissolution of salts in water directly related to their solubility?
The solubility of NaCl and KCl in 300C are 36 and 34, respectively. If 1 liter of water is added to 1 kg of a mixture of these two salts (NaCl:10 %w.t, KCl: 90 %w.t), how will the liquid and new solid composition after the dissolution?
In other words, how is the equilibrium composition of the solution estimated in this case?
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I'm trying to improve the solubility of curcumin (a plant extract) for an experiment by creating an inclusion complex using Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.
I have decided to create the complex using a magnetically stirred physical mixture of distilled water, Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and curcumin at 50 Celsius. I will then add acetic acid to bring the PH to 3 as this seems to be PH/temperature that creates the strongest complex in studies.
My question:
How strong is the cyclodextrin complex? I am thinking of using a low temp dehydrator to dry the mixed solution, and then a grinder to create powder. Will this destroy the complex significantly - and if so how can I preserve the inclusion complex while creating a powder?
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Ajouter un additif qui piège le complexe
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I want to know the solubility of P2O5 and phosphate in the pH range of 6-10.
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Dear Dhiraj Bhalachandra Thakur thank you for your interesting technical question. In order to give you a qualified answer you should try to be a bit more specific. First of all, please note that there is no such compound as P2O5. The most common oxide of phosphorus is P4O10 (see attached schematic formula). As mentioned by Adam B Shapiro P4O10 easily reacts with water under formation of phosphoric acid, H3PO4. As for the phosphate, it would be helpful of you could specify which phosphate salts you are interested in. The solubility of phosphates in water ranges from insoluble to highly soluble.
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Hello friends,
I am working on the design of the RO system for mining wastewater. I have 115 ppm of BOD in feed. I am always confuse about what should be the maximum limit of BOD in RO feed. Majority of big companies like DOW specifies 5 - 10 ppm of max BOD is allowed in RO feed. However, they are not specifying that whether it should be soluble BOD or insoluble BOD. If we have 100 ppm of soluble BOD than I don't see any reason why we can not use RO. If it is insoluble; than it depends on particle size. I would highly appreciate if some one can give me information about what should be the maximum BOD/COD concentration in RO feed and which type of BOD / COD is allowed? (like soluble, insoluble etc.). Also BOD and COD are generalized terms. There are many compounds fall in this category. Does someone has some type of article or document that includes different type of BODs and CODs and tell us whether they can pass through RO or not.
Many Thanks.
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After RO , Water must be free from BOD or COD.
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I want to dissolve PET in polarclean. According to hansen solubility equations it should be dissolved but it didn't work in the lab. Can anybody give some references or share the experience?
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Hi Parto,
Did you try at different temperature and pressure conditions?
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I am working on synthesis of heterocyclic compounds containg l-tryptophan. Most of the synthesized derivatives aren’t soluble in Dmso , I tried to use a mixture of TFA and Dmso-d6 , sample was soluble but the peaks wasn’t clear, Does the color of sample have any relation with clarity of the spectrum???
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There is no relation between the color of sample and the clarity of Hnmr spectrum. If the sample is pure its solution is perfectly clear.
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I need to calculate solubility constants for some minerals, I intend to use them for geochemical modeling. I've searched for these contants in EQ3/6, Thermoddem and SUPRCTBL, however some minerals are missing on the databases, for example Andesine, which is one of the key minerals on my simulation.
I have seen that in some papers, the the log K values are derived using SUPCRT or EQ3/6. The authors use the mineralogical characterization (from microprobe data for example) and theoretical formulas, either using a solid solution approach or directly, however the detailed methodologies are not explained. The available information in this regard is also scarce. I am able to calculate log K values for defined minerals (in the databases) in SUPRCTBL but I do not know how to calculate the values for new minerals.
Any advice in this regard is warmly received, bibliography, tutorial......
Thanks in advance.
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Hi! I'm an alumni of the GEOPIG group at ASU and might have some useful info for your search. The database in the SUPCRT92 url posted cannot be edited and also has the drawback of occasionally spitting back the wrong output if other users happen to be running a calculation at the same time (it's not super common, but it can happen).
One suggestion I would make is to use CHNOSZ, the R-package tool developed by Dr. Jeff Dick.
If you can find the thermodynamic properties for your minerals of interest, you can include them during your session (imported as a CSV file) while running CHNOSZ and then perform a SUPCRT92 calculation. You will need to find literature that lists the thermodynamic properties for your minerals of interest so that they can be estimated by the HKF equation used in SUPCRT. I've helped Jeff run workshops on CHNOSZ and am planning to create modules from those materials at some point, but the progress is slow for now. He has included very thorough documentation through the website above though, so you should be able to find the info.
Also, the GEOPIG group are starting a series of workshops on using various thermodynamic tools and databases. Again, that will take a little time, but it is in development.
In addition, there are ways to use these tools through the ENKI portal.
The ENKI project allows easier access to a variety of different database tools through a JUPYTER notebook interface, so if you know python, that is another place you should check out.
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I am performing an experiment about the biodegradation of insoluble substances.
We first dissolved this insoluble substance in acetone to be a stock solution, then we add this stock solution to a liquid medium to stating a 14 days bacterial degradation test.
But the acetone in the liquid medium will volatilize as the experiment goes on, then the insoluble substance will be precipitated in the liquid medium.
therefore we can't analyze the concentration of the insoluble substance in the liquid medium perfectly.
How can we do to evenly sample the insoluble substance in the liquid medium and do not affect the bacteria growth simultaneously?
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It is a common problem. How about a less volatile solvent? You would have to run a control with the solvent only. Alternatively, how about doing this in a chemostat to constantly add the acetone-substrate mixture?
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Hi All,
I would like to calculate the solubility of carbon in metals ( mono-metals e.g. Ni, Co ,Fe, Mo and Cu) and mixtures of metals ( e.g. Ni-Fe, Fe-Co & Fe-Mo) at 700 deg C. The major focus is on transition metals and mixture of transition metals
Is there any way by which I can calculate solubility of carbon in all transition metals and mixture of metals ?
or
is there any commercial database/software ?
Kind regards,
Sushil
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Dear S.S. Shirsath thank you for your interesting technical question. The following relevant article is freely available as public full text on ResearchGate:
Solubility of Carbon in Nanocrystalline 𝛼-Iron
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I contacted Sigma Aldrich technical support for oxonic acid potassium salt solubility, and I was informed that it dissolves in water (60mg/ml). I tried in water with constant heating and stirring but can't dissolve it. Any suggestions will be highly appreciated. Thank you in advance!!!
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Dear Deepak Pokhrel thank yopu for your interesting technical question. According to the article cited below, it might be possible to use the potassium oxonate as a suspension. It is st ated in this work that "PO was suspended in 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na) freshly and given to mice by i.p. injection (300 mg/kg) daily for 14 days."
Curcumin attenuates potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia and kidneyinflammation in mice
This article is freely available as public full ext on ResearchGate
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In a lecture, we were discussing the octanol-water partition coefficient. I understand the concept, why it is used, how it is used but our instructor asked "what do you think about why we are using octanol for this coefficient?" Immediately, I thought solubility, polarity, availability but she did not give us an exact answer. So, if there is a reason why we prefer octanol for this test, I would like to hear. Thanks in advance.
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I am producing polymers, and I made a solubility test and swelling test, this polymer gave the highest solubility results and it did not lose its shape, and the highest swelling ratio also ??
what is the scientific explanation for this case??
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Dear all, how solubility is achieved without complete dissolution since the shape is kept constant ? Solubility is the destruction of cohesion that maintains molecules in a given form. Swelling is the first step to reach solubilization (if the material is soluble), it is a diffusion process function of concentration, temperature (or say any energy input such as mixing), and time. If you want only swelling play on concentration, i.e., less solvent or high compound mass. My Regards
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Hello !
Concerning the dissolution testing, I don't understand why we work in NON-SINK conditions when doing development (for example if I test the solubility of my active ingredient) and in SINK conditions when we have to do regulation...
Thanks !
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As far as I understand, drug molecules can be dispersed in accumulated clusters at concentrations above the point where the drug is able to be molecularly dispersed (ie dissolved). This accumulation can lead to stability of the clusters that falsely increase the perceived solubility, depending on method of measurement of solubility. This is particularly present if the method of quantification is the addition of aliquots of drug until a perceived saturation point.
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What is the LD50 (LD not LC) of BPA for Nile Tilapia. Meaning BPA intake as in food not in water. Most studies raport to LC, very few on LD, this chemical is simply not soluble enough to be taken from water but from solids such as microplastics.
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Hey Cristian,
I don't know if you consulted the US EPA Ecotox database in this matter but it only gives one output: LD50 for zebrafish. If there is nothing indexed, chances are high that there is not much around.
Best
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I have synthesized one new fluorescent polymer containing high electron donor-acceptor as well as hole transporting moieties. It has an excellent ability to form thin film-like paper (which has insoluble in water, brittle in nature) without adding anything. It is quite soluble in organic solvents and showing solvatochromism property as well. Can anybody suggest that where can I use this one?
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You can use fluorescent thin films in various applications such as optoelectronics, display technology, biomedical devices, sensors, etc.
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Hello,
I need to find experimental data for CO2 solubility in water that can be simply modelled by using the Peng Robinson equation of state for a project. The concentration of CO2 has to be very low for this purpose. I wonder if you could suggest to me a research article that contains the described experimental data for my project?
Best wishes
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One simple search turned up a huge amount of data and graphs of CO2 solubility in water.
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Hello,
I need to find experimental data for CO2 solubility in water that can be simply modeled by using the Peng Robinson equation of state for a project. The concentration of CO2 has to be very low for this purpose. I wonder if you could suggest to me a research article that contains the described experimental data for my project?
Best wishes
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Pls see the attached file.
If you needed the reference please let me know so that to email it to you.
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If we are to add 10g each of TiC, TiN, NbC, ZrO2, TiB2 in a matrix let say Austenitic steel, I would like to know if the solubility of each reinforcement in the steel to form a composite could be predicted using software and how it could be done.
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I think thermodynamic/phase diagram/modelling softwares will be more helpful in this regard.
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I have a soluble yeast protein that needs to be transported to mitchondria for processing. I have put the Cox IV presequence infront of the ORF. I know it would be synthsized in cytosol, imported to mitchondria where its presequnce would be processed and it would go through folding with the healp of mtHSP70. My question is: would it be realed into the cytosol after the folding?
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thanks
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how can i dissolve both the anionic surfactant ( SDS ) and salt ( NaCl ) in 5 ml water without precipitating salt or surfactant or sticking to the wall or bottom of the beaker?
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Hi Ali,
I recognize the case..... trying to do multiple things in one go... When dissolving chemicals, always check:
1. If your target concentration does not exceed the solubility limit of each of your components? So, check SDS solubility.
2. The sum of components does not exceed the solubility of each component, so if both components do not hinder each others solubility? Which means check if NaCl lowers the solubility of SDS (I guess it does)?
If you are sure the target concentration is below the solubility limit, than the effect you're seeing is kinetics of dissolution. This is easy to fix...
1. If you want to make the solution by adding solids and next water, use some mild heating to speed up dissolution (e.g. water bath at 45°C for 2 hours).
2. If you only need to obtain a solution of both and the pathway to get there is not important, first make a concentrated SDS and NaCl solution separately, next mix them in any ratio you like.
Hope this helps, kind regards, Leo
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I need to dissolve 6 and 9 g of PVC in 100 grams of MEK each. I've left the solutions to shake over night but the PVC did not dissolve. I increased the temperature to 50 Celcius to see if heat has an effect but it does not seem to work. What do I need to do to completely dissolve PVC in MEK?
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Dear all, you can enhance the solubility by using a MEK based mixture with any other solvent that accepted with regard to the biocompatibility ! Is MEK a biocompatible solvent ? I suggect using MEK-THF binary solution. My Regards
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I am a little confuse with the mechanism of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The main point of encapsulating drugs into SLNs is because some drugs have low solubility in water. Therefore, SLNs works as a drug carrier which it is also known to be soluble in our blood.
If the drug is water insoluble, this means it cannot be dissolved in water. In this case, we need to melt the drug and mix it with lipid (heat them above 5 - 10 C of the lipid melting temperature) and then, mix them with the aqueous solution (surfactant + water). Hence, we will have an emulsion.
Was wondering, what is the state of the drug (eg: drug is solid at room temperature), if the melting point of the drug is higher (for instance 200 C) than the melting points of lipid (70 C) and surfactant used? Is it dissolve in the fluid or is it a dispersion?
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Apart from enhancing solubility, it also helps drugs bioavalability, and as well aids in crossing blood-brain barriers. It's no meant primarily as a carrier, it helps in system delivery. You may get more from here: https://www.google.com.sa/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5783816/&ved=2ahUKEwj-vOCGhLTvAhWHyIUKHXtmAoMQFjAGegQIJBAF&usg=AOvVaw00fYx997RpLP_KC3ZexnyJ
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I need to prepare a solution of Napabucasin (inhibitor of cancer cell stemness) in dichloromethane. The drug is expensive, so maybe somebody already tried to do it. If it is soluble, what is the max concentration?
The same question about solubility in ethanol.
Thank you!
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So, I tried to solved Napabucasin in absolute Ethanol, it is partially solved in ethanol. What exactly amount was soluble, I don't know, but I tried 2 mg of the drug in 10 ml of ethanol. The solution has yellow color but it isn't clear, some particles of the drug are present in such solution. I made filtration of this "solution" (I used 0.2 um filter), there were particles of yellow color in the filter. I checked the ethanol solution on UV, it showed me the presence of the drug. After, I decided to pass through the filter dichloromethane, and I saw that the filter start to be clean. I collected this dichloromethane solution and analyzed it also on a UV, it showed a nice peak of the drug too. It's sims to me that the drug is very well soluble in dichloromethane but I don't know how the solvent can influence the stability of the drug.
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We are Phthalo Pigment manufacturer. Soluble Copper is present in our by product spent acid. If we remove or reduce the amount of soluble copper from the spent acid, it could be easy to dispose as by product in market. It will reduce our treatment cost.
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Dear Subramaniyan Vittal,
You can precipitate the copper from the solution as insoluble CuS. This can be done, for example, by adding a Na2S solution or alternatively by introducing H2S into the solution:
Сu2+ + 2Na+ + S2- = CuS↓ + 2Na+
Сu2+ + H2S = CuS↓ + 2H+
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When I am performing the solubility studies of my drug in different solid lipids for making SLN, the solid lipid is becoming solid immediately after removing from heat condition. So, I am unable to check the concentration of drug solubilized in the lipid.Please help me in this regard.
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referred authenticate protocol and SOP given in literature
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UPDATE: the temperature sensor of the pH meter was broken
Hello,
I use this buffer during my protein purification process:
20mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 6M urea, (+ protease inhibitors)
In one step of the protocol, I have to lower the pH to 2.5 (my protein is soluble at this pH), ultracentrifuge, and then raise the pH to 8.5 again. I use HCl and NaOH to adjust the pH and I do it on ice. After a while, the pH drops from 8.5 to around 2.5-4.
I did a test and took buffer without a protein and measured it at two temperatures. On ice, it was ~3.5 and at 25C it was 8.5. Is there something wrong with the buffer or the pH electrode?
I just can add that my colleague had a similar problem with Tris buffer at pH 7.5.
Thank you :)
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it may be depending upon latent heat of salt solution
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I synthesized a conjugated polymer, but that's a little bit soluble in common organic solvent.(ex. MeOH, hexane, chloroform... etc.)
Except for soluble part, there remain product a lot.
Souble part can be characterized by GPC(Mn is about 1800.).
I know that the soluble part also exhibit low M.W that's hard to called polymer(monomer's M.W=170g/mol)
but, I wonder know insoluble part is polymer.
How can I confirm that?
I really appreciate your reply.
Thx.
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Dear all, the soluble fraction is either unreacted monomer(s) and/or low MW chains oligomers. Without knowing the polymer you are synthesizing, one find it difficult to guess the appropriate details. Please check the following documents. My Regards
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Hello everyone ,
Please tell me if It possible to seperat POlyethelyn glycol -4000 from an aqueuse media by other ways rather heating .
I have tried salting out by electrolyte solution to reduce solubility but I am not sure of the results.
Thank you in advanced.
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Whatever the method of water elimination, the micelles or nanoparticles will be lost, and the drug will be embedded in the PEG matrix.
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After seeking for references, most of the solvents for Dess-Martin is DCM, but my compound has a poor solubility in DCM. Because my compound is acid-sensitive, I prefer not to use IBX to oxidize my compound to aldehyde. I am wandering if DMP in DMF would produce side product or oxidize my compound to carboxylic acid? Thanks for help.
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I have tried pure DMF and DCM/DMSO co-solvent, and all the material dissolved well, but all I could get was acetylation of my compound without any aldehyde product according to crude NMR. I am not sure it was caused by the intrinsic nature of my product or the solvent effect. I may try to ues IBX as the oxidant.
But still thank for all your replications.
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Upon some research I found different protocols of BPA solubility, some state a 5 v/v % ethanol (MOTOYAMA et al ) will catalyze the process of solubility and BPA will stay in solution (being an azeotrop the ethanol won't evaporate). The European Union Risk Assessment Report CAS: 80-05-7 EINECS No: 201-245-8 states that BPA solubility in water is 300 mg/L so does pubchem. How can I get a solution of more than 300 ppm BPA completely dissolved in water preferably without ethanol? Will dmso work as good? Waiting for your replies. Thank you
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Dissolve the solid BPA in Methanol (keep the volume of methanol to the minimum) and afterwards when it dissolves, add the preferable amount water and immediately stir vigorously.
Up to 200mg/L you can dissolve it directly in water; however it will require quite some time for it to dissolve.
I hope I helped you.
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Hello.
I ask for help - I need to get lithium tetraborate (soluble salt) from lithium carbonate and boric acid. In literature, everything seems to be simple - mix, ignite and - it's done. But it doesn't. I have little experience, maybe I am making some mistake?
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Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh Thank you! This is what suits me! Good luck to you!!!
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I have tried to hydrolyze the sample using 2 M TFA at 100C for 24, 48 h and 120C for 2 h. From these conditions, the HPLC results showed that peaks were not separated into monosaccharide. I found that many papers using 2 M TFA for this analysis. I also have tried using 1 M H2SO4 at 100C, but it was failed too. Please, any suggestions, what other methods should I use for this analysis? Many thanks.
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Mrs/Miss Muhardina,
Your experimental design should include mass spectrometric (MS) determination; however, within the framework of our own-authored (to me and my co-author's according to the authorship shown in the corresponding publications) innovative stochastic dynamic theory and model formulas for quantification of experimental MS variables.
Please, consider the content of the following discussion and the reference section shown, therein.
Please, bear in mind, as well as, that the discussion focuses on MALDI-MS analysis; however, our stochastic dynamic method is applicable to different mass spectrometric ionization methods.
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the samples are not completely soluble - just swelled the solvents that's mean the sample may be partially soluble
any suggestion, please
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Dear Mahmoud,
Turbidity and opacity of the samples can cause problems to obtain accurate spectra, with a good noise-to-signal ratio. If you think that your sample is partially soluble, try to pulverize it (to increase the contact surface with the solvent), add the solvent, stir vigorously to get that partial solubility and then filter it before recording the NMR spectrum. Even if you have a low concentration, this can be overcome if you just accumulate the sufficient amount of scans. You can previously check if you got the partial solubility by evaporating the solvent after filtration, as a quick test (obviously, after that you can just repeat the process).
Other possible fast solution is to change the NMR solvent for another one more appropiate. There are plenty of them, even protic ones (like methanol-d4), so you can choose other more suitable for your sample.
And then you also have other non-standard options, such as derivatization of your sample so it becomes soluble or even solid state NMR if you cannot get a clear solution by any means. But these should be tested after the previous ones have failed.
Hope you find it helpful
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My n hexane plant extract is not soluble in any solvent. I have tried water, normal saline, tween 20 (2%, 5%, 10%, 50%), tween 80 (2%, 5%, 10%, 50%), pure DMSO, ethanol (2%, 5%, 10%, 50%, 97%), infact n-hexane itself as well. But it's not completely soluble in any of these. I have warm these and vortox as well but no positive results were observed. Sparingly soluble status is there.
Plz suggest some appropriate solvent to dissolve it fully and minimal toxicity as I have to perform in vivo activities and mice dies with DMSO and other issues are also encountered with cell lines studies.
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For in vitro work, you could try dimethylformamide, but check for toxicity with a solvent control.
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I am testing a compound on RAW 264.7. the compound is soluble in DMSO. but to ensure that final concentration of dmso is not more than 0.1%, we are first dissolving it in dmso and then diluting it in pbs/ media which is leading to precipitation. I am aware that i can prepare highly concentrated stock, but because its an expensive compound i cant do that either, is there any other way that i can go ahead with?
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First, kudos to you for visually determining that you have an aqueous solubility problem! A common paradigm in pharma screening is to dilute a 10mM DMSO stock at 1:1000 into medium (usually containing 10% FBS). How that's done might be important. One can simply inject a uL volume into a mL volume of medium, but this sometimes results in precipitation of the cmpd. Sometimes this can be averted by adding to a vigorously mixed system. We typically place 1-2uL of a 10-50mM DMSO stock in the cap if a microfuge tube containing a mL of medium, quickly cap, invert and immediately vortex the tube upside down. This might result in a supersaturated solution that could still ppt with time or simply produce smaller particles of ppt that are less visible to the naked eye. We also have determined for our assay that using up to 1% DMSO is not influential, so sometimes a lower stock concn and larger volume are diluted.