Paula Carroll

Paula Carroll
University College Dublin | UCD · College of Business

PhD

About

50
Publications
6,898
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174
Citations
Introduction
Paula Carroll currently works at the College of Business, University College Dublin. Paula does research in Operations Research, Statistics, and Business Analytics. Her current project is 'Energy System Integration - Smart Grid Innovations.'

Publications

Publications (50)
Chapter
In order to deal with the high development time of exact and approximation algorithms for NP-hard combinatorial optimisation problems and the high running time of exact solvers, deep learning techniques have been used in recent years as an end-to-end approach to find solutions. However, there are issues of representation, generalisation, complex ar...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of simulation-based optimisation, this paper reviews recent work related to the role of metaheuristics, matheuristics (combinations of exact optimisation methods with metaheuristics), simheuristics (hybridisation of simulation with metaheuristics), biased-randomised heuristics for ‘agile’ optimisation via parallel computing, and lear...
Preprint
Full-text available
In order to deal with the high development time of exact and approximation algorithms for NP-hard combinatorial optimisation problems and the high running time of exact solvers, deep learning techniques have been used in recent years as an end-to-end approach to find solutions. However, there are issues of representation, generalisation, complex ar...
Chapter
Intelligent planning, control and forecasting of electricity usage has become a vitally important element of the modern conception of the energy grid. Electricity smart-meters permit the sequential measurement of electricity usage at an aggregate level within a dwelling at regular time intervals. Electricity distributors or suppliers are interested...
Article
Full-text available
The electrification of home heating is proposed as a low carbon solution in climate change action plans. It is therefore important to understand the energy efficiency and capability of heat pumps when deployed in the homes of end users. This paper presents a systematic literature review of Air Source Heat Pumps (ASHP) field studies. The papers are...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document provides a review of EU strategic priorities and policy developments structured into two dimensions: the dimension of the legislative process and the dimension of the policies themselves. The dimension of the legislative process addresses the process of legislation co-creation and social acceptance from stakeholder perspective. The di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Analysing the intensity of research activity in smart grid related projects being carried out in the EU Member States (MS) is one of the key processes to identify the future steps necessary for a responsible energy transition. So, within this paper, a brief review is performed on the two project evaluation methodologies that are well practiced in t...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a study in Smart Grid Tariff Design. We use historic Smart Meter electricity usage data and Representative Load Profiles (RLPs) to explore Time-of-Use (ToU) tariffs. We consider the problem from the perspective of a supplier who wishes to set tariffs to maximise revenue, and has to anticipate responses from consumers who wish t...
Conference Paper
Intelligent planning, control and forecasting of electricity usage has become a vitally important element of the modern conception of the energy grid. Electricity smart-meters permit the sequential measurement of electricity usage at an aggregate level within a dwelling at regular time intervals. Electricity distributors or suppliers are interested...
Conference Paper
The Irish government is implementing policies to transition Ireland to a low carbon and environmentally sustainable economy by 2050. Ireland has sectoral targets of 600,000 installed heat pumps by 2030, currently roughly 28,000 are installed. Such a high target of heat pumps will not only have a significant effect on electricity demand but also on...
Preprint
Full-text available
NOTE: The final version is labelled Aug_2020. This version corrects an error in the author names, and removes specific deadlines from the recommendations. The WISDOM Forum was set up to provide a platform to support, empower and encourage the participation of all genders in Operational Research within EURO. 3 We cannot solve problems that we do no...
Preprint
Full-text available
One of the key outcomes of PANTERA is to identify the current status of the EU member states (MS) with the low R&I activities in the field of smart grid, storage and local energy systems. Along with this, PANTERA is analysing the needs for future R&I priorities to achieve the decarbonised European smart grid network in a harmonised way (to meet the...
Article
Full-text available
The Irish government is implementing policies to transition Ireland to a low carbon and environmentally sustainable economy by 2050. Ireland has sectoral targets of 600,000 installed heat pumps by 2030, currently roughly 28,000 are installed. Such a high target of heat pumps will not only have a significant effect on electricity demand but also on...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding temporal expressions among events described in text is a major challenge in natural language processing. In longer texts, processing on sentence-by-sentence or expression-by-expression basis often fails, in part due to the disregard for the consistency of the processed data, e.g., temporal relations. We present an ensemble method, whi...
Article
Note: Elsevier are providing free access to our article until 14th March 2020 through this link: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1aSgLbquFGpHs Biopharmaceutical manufacturers are required to collect extensive observational data sets in order to meet regulatory and process quality monitoring requirements. These datasets contain information that may...
Article
Full-text available
The extraction of temporal events from text and the classification of temporal relations among both temporal events and time expressions are major challenges for the interface of data mining and natural language processing.We present an ensemble method, which reconciles the outputs of multiple heterogeneous classifiers of temporal expressions. We u...
Conference Paper
The proliferation of low carbon technologies (LCTs) such as heat pumps and electric vehicles (EVs), which are critical to decarbonising domestic heat and transport infrastructure, will pose considerable challenges to the operation of distribution networks. As these technologies will be connected directly to the low voltage (LV) network, this is whe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data science is a relatively new requirement in business curricula. Historically many business students have shied away from business statistics. We describe a project to create learning objects to enhance business students confidence and capabilities in performing statistical and analytics business tasks. In this paper we focus on the content deve...
Conference Paper
This paper addresses supports for evolving design demands of electricity low voltage networks in urban areas. Innovations in how electricity is generated and supplied are required to support transformation of energy systems in response to climate change. We describe a MIP model to support grid upgrade decisions in the context of an energy community...
Article
Full-text available
Smart metering in electricity markets offers an opportunity to explore more diverse tariff structures. In this article residential electricity demand and the System Marginal Price of Ireland’s Single Electricity Market are simulated to estimate the wholesale risk associated with possible tariffs. A genetic algorithm (GA) with a stochastic fitness f...
Chapter
We provide an introduction to the use of exact approaches to solving vehicle routing problems (VRPs). We demonstrate the use of Integer Programming vehicle flow formulations and branch-and-cut techniques on a sample of benchmark capacitated VRP problem instances. We incorporate additional geospatial information to estimate CO2 emissions of designed...
Article
We present high resolution wind power statistical models fitted to meteorological data for the island of Ireland. We find that a discrete Burr model efficiently represents the number of consecutive hours of wind power availability. Burr models are also useful to model the complement of the wind power availability events, wind droughts, when wind sp...
Article
We propose a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to address a Green Vehicle Routing Problem (G-VRP). Unlike classic formulations of the VRP, this study aims to minimise the CO2 emissions per route. The G-VRP is of interest to policy makers who wish to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The GA is tested on a suite of benchmark, and real-world instances which inclu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a project conducted in conjunction with the Central Statistics Office of Ireland in response to a planned national rollout of smart electricity metering in Ireland. We investigate how this new data source might be used for the purpose of official statistics production. This study specifically looks at the question of determinin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on high resolution wind power statistical models fitted to meteorological data for the island of Ireland. A discrete Burr model efficiently represents the number of consecutive hours of wind power availability. The models developed in this study may be most useful at time resolutions less than 6 hours to capture zero power and sh...
Conference Paper
Power systems are operated to deliver electricity at minimum cost while adhering to operational and technical constraints. The introduction of smart grid technologies and renewable energy sources offers new challenges and opportunities for the efficient and reliable management of the grid. In this paper we focus on a Mixed Integer Programming sub-h...
Article
The interactions of early stage business students with learning resources over the duration of an introductory statistics module were analysed using latent class analysis. Four distinct behavioural groups were identified. While differing levels of face to face attendance and online interaction existed, all four groups failed to engage with online m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to address the Green Vehicle Routing Problem (G-VRP). Unlike classic formulations of the VRP, this study aims to minimise the CO2 emissions per route. The GA is tested on a suite of real-world and benchmark instances. Solutions are compared with routes that are currently used by drivers in a courier company. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
IT multinational enterprises (MNEs) have garnered a significant amount of attention in relation to the growth of indigenous IT sectors . Compared to some sectors, the IT industry - which trades in immaterial goods - may be less dependent on spatial constraints since it does not rely on large scale labor force or massive movement of raw materials. T...
Conference Paper
This teaching case describes an assessment component which was developed as part of a core undergraduate module in data analysis. The data analysis module is taken by all undergraduate business students at the School of Business in University College Dublin. We give a detailed description of the team project assessment component. This component was...
Conference Paper
Due to increasing penetration of non-traditional power system resources; e.g. renewable generation, electric vehicles, demand response, etc. and computational power there has been an increased interest in research on unit commitment. It therefore may be important to take another look at how unit commitment models and algorithms are validated especi...
Article
Smart metering in electricity markets offers an opportunity to explore more diverse tariff structures. In this article a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to design Time of Use tariffs that minimise the wholesale risk to the supplier in residential markets. Residential demand and the System Marginal Price of Ireland's Single Electricity Market are sim...
Conference Paper
We investigate the learning patterns of students taking an introductory statistics module. Latent class analysis is used to assess how the students interact with the diff�erent learning resources at their disposal as the module progresses. Four behavioural groups were identifi�ed: while diff�ering levels of face to face attendance and online intera...
Article
Traditionally, the Six Sigma framework has underpinned quality improvement and assurance in bio pharmaceutical manufacturing process management. This paper proposes a neural network (NN) approach to vaccine yield classification. The NN is compared to an existing multiple linear regression approach. As part of the Six Sigma process, this paper shows...
Article
Full-text available
Demand-Side Management systems aim to modulate energy consumption at the customer side of the meter using price incentives. Current incentive schemes allow consumers to reduce their costs, and from the point of view of the supplier play a role in load balancing, but do not lead to optimal demand patterns. In the context of charging fleets of electr...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper the complex problems of developing quantitative and analytical skills in undergraduate first year, first semester business students are addressed. An action research project, detailing how first year business students perceive the relevance of data analysis and inferential statistics in light of the economic downturn and the challenge...
Article
This paper describes the Ring Spur Assignment Problem (RSAP), an interesting new problem arising in the design of Next Generation Networks. We describe the problem, position it in relation to problems previously addressed in the literature and give an IP model suitable for solving small problem instances. We outline a cutting plane algorithm for la...
Article
We describe a set of nonparametric and machine learning models to forecast the proportion of planned end products (PEP) that can be extracted from a forest compartment. We determine which forest crop attributes are significant in predicting the product proportions (of sawlog, pallet, stake, and pulp) based on an Irish data set supplied by Coillte,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Executive summary: Demand Side Response management encourages elec-tricity demand reduction during peak hours. One avenue for achieving this is through Demand Side Units (DSUs). These are large electricity consumers who can afford to reduce their demand on the electricity grid when required. Issues with DSUs revolve around verification that the cor...
Conference Paper
For many real-world problems, there exist non-deterministic heuristics which generate valid but possibly sub-optimal solutions. The program optimisation with dependency injection method, introduced here, allows such a heuristic to be placed under evolutionary control, allowing search for the optimum. Essentially, the heuristic is "fooled" into usin...
Article
The ring spur assignment problem arises in the design of next-generation telecommunications networks and has applications in location-allocation problems. The aim is to identify a minimum cost set of interconnected ring spurs. We seek to connect all nodes of the network either on a set of bounded disjoint local rings or by a single spur edge connec...
Article
This paper describes the ring spur assignment problem (RSAP), a new problem arising in the design of next generation networks. The RSAP complements the sonet ring assignment problem (SRAP). We describe the RSAP, positioning it in relation to problems previously addressed in the literature. We decompose the problem into two IP problems and describe...
Conference Paper
We present two complete integer programming formulations for the ring spur assignment problem. This problem arises in the design of next generation telecommunications networks. We analyse and compare the formulations in terms of compactness, the resulting LP bound and results from a branch and cut implementation. We present our conclusions with com...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
Preliminary results of the EURO WISDOM survey to understand career paths in Operational Research (OR) by gender suggest OR is carried out in more Engineering departments than in Schools of Business.
Faculty survey respondents to date are affiliated to:
Engineering 34%
Business 30%
Computer Science 12%
Mathematics 10%
Research Centre/Other 15%
Which is that true for you?
We invite anyone working in OR (male/female/academic/practionner) to complete the 10 minute anonymous survey by Sunday 25th July 2021. The survey is here: https://ucdbusiness.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_3UfzP74RaNRhbxQ
The EURO WISDOM Forum provides a platform to support, empower and encourage the participation of all genders in Operational Research within EURO. You'll find more details about the EURO WISDOM Forum here: https://www.euro-online.org/web/pages/1654/wisdom

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Projects

Projects (7)
Project
The EURO WISDOM Research subcommittee is working on research to support, empower, and encourage the participation of all genders in Operational Research.