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Questions related to Mechanical Engineering
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A high grade energy can be completely converted into a low grade energy, however visa versa is not possible for a spontaneous process. Since PE can be converted into KE but KE cannot be converted into PE when the process is spontaneous. Therefore should we consider KE is a higher grade energy like work and electrical energy?
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Heat - Low grade energy since it can be converted into work .
Electrical and Chemical Energy - High grade energy - concentrated on small space can be converted into high amount of work .
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I want to show simulation of rotary friction welding process using either Ansys 14 or pro engineer 5.0
Iam doing experimental analysis on friction welded specimen,static,fatigue,compression,torsion,thermal and microstructure
Can anyone help me how to do simulation of friction welding when actually it is happening?????,i actually read a report on this simulation done in abaqus software?
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Following may be used for reference:
Hynes, N.R.J., Velu, P.S. Simulation of friction welding of alumina and steel with aluminum interlayer. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93, 121–127 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7874-8
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Hello! I have an exercise to do and I am struggling with it for a week ago. I have a 2D flow with the initial velocity at the inlet=0.01m/s. And I want to calculate the numerical results of the velocity which is the function of x and y direction (U(x,y)) in the domain of the water flow. For example if I want to calculate the velocity at the distance x1 and x2 (as in the figure) in the function of x and y., how can I calculate it? Please note that it is incompressible flow. It is fully developed after it passed the entrance length. The height of the domain is 0.02 m and the length is 1 m. Please help me! You can see the following figure. Thank You in advance! I will appreciate your help !
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Finally, I did it after I know how to use 1st Simpson Rule to apply this problem!
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Hi dear researchers
Im trying to model polymeric material, but the elastic module of that is not constant and varies with change in strain, this polymeric strip(membrane element) is embedded in soil as a reinforcement and tensile load will be applied to that, so I wanna know if for my purpose using property >> mechanical >> elastic >>Hyper elastic is suitable or not, because as I know entering stress -strain test data is possible in hyper elastic.
Im wondering if using hyper elastic requires any special conditions or not or any alternative( better) way for my purpose.
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Sujeet Kumar dear sujeet
thanks for your attention, but I have doubt about that, because my purpose is to use stress-strain curve in Elastic phase Not Plastic ,I mean using plasticity option for my goal seems wrong , whats your opinion?
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I mean the mathematical component of said process.
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coupled eulerian lagrangian (cel in abaqus, ale in ls-dyna)
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Hi
I know the procedure of modeling modal analysis to obtain natural frequencies(I mean using Linear perturbation step>>frequency and without defining any other loading....) but the problem is all examples I have seen is just for model made of just one material(most examples for cantilever beam) but my model is consist of two or more material( 2layer soil and layer of polymer between these soil layers), for obtaining natural frequencies in this case, my exact question is: I have to run modal analysis for each material separately or all together?!
I should mention that the polymeric membrane part does not have any type of support and its just in interaction with soil( normal and tangential behaviour), and if I run the modal analysis for this part alone natural frequencies for polymeric membrane is zero. while the soil is fixed at bottom and sides and by running modal analysis once for soil alone and another time soil with polymer,the natural frequencies are the same for both conditions. so i'm willing to know any advise and special point to obtain natural frequencies procedure for model consist of two or more materials in abaqus.
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Interesting
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What is the shell orientation mean in ANSYS APDL?
Does it mean that if I have a shell on the XZ plane then I set the orientation as 0 degrees as shown in the pictorial view
and if I have a shell on the XY plane then I set the orientation as 90 degrees?
Or does it mean something else? Like the direction of the fibers in the material?
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Dear @Zeinah Mohamad Elnassar,
The material orientation is used in case the model is described by an anisotropic material. It shows the principal axis of the element (for composite materials the fibres direction as you mentioned), where in shell elements a single angle is enough to describe the local orientation of the element.
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I mean the use of the SQUG database to assess the seismic resistance of NPP equipment with the specified type of reactor.
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The GIP, justifiably, recognizes that "outliers resolution may be somewhat open-ended in that several different options or approaches are available .Experience at SRS leads us to recommend the use of outliers evaluation criteria. The criteria would define the analytical or test methods to be used for resolving GIP outliers. They include, for example, the applicable input spectra, the committed regulatory guides, and industry codes and standards along with any plant-specific additions or exceptions used for analysis. This would ensure compliance with plant licensing commitments, and consistent resolution of outliers.
The answer is a "Yes" to that question I guess.
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Looking for a motivated Ph.D. candidate to work in the field of additive manufacturing with the background of mechanical engineering and material science.
Deadline for application: February 14, 2020
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Dear sir,
during my master degree my research work was on laser additive manufacturing.
i would like to pursue my doctor degree on additive manufacturing because of my previous work.
if there is any vacancy on additive manufacturing please let me know.
thank you
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It is meant especially thermodynamic and gas-dynamic state.
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Wankel motors are impressively lighter and less difficult, containing far less moving parts than cylinder motors or conventional motors of comparable force yield. Valves or complex valve trains are wiped out by utilizing basic ports cut into the dividers of the rotor lodging.
Since the rotor rides straightforwardly on an enormous bearing on the yield shaft, there are no interfacing poles and no driving rod. The end of responding mass, and the disposal of the most exceptionally focused and disappointment inclined pieces of cylinder motors, gives the Wankel motor high unwavering quality, a smoother stream of force, and a high ability to-weight proportion.
It possesses higher ability to weight proportion than a cylinder motor.
It is less expensive to mass-produce, on the grounds that the motor contains less parts.
It is simpler to bundle in little motor spaces than an identical cylinder motor. Also wankel motor is ready to arrive at higher cycles each moment than a cylinder motor.
Predominant breathing, filling the burning charge in 270 levels of mainshaft turn as opposed to 180 degrees in a cylinder motor
Providing force for around 66% of the ignition cycle as opposed to one quarter for a cylinder motor
Can utilize fills of more extensive octane evaluations.
Doesn't experience the ill effects of "scale impact" to restrict its size.
Wankel motor is handily adjusted and profoundly appropriate to utilize hydrogen fuel.
More extensive speed range giving more noteworthy versatility.
On some Wankel motors the sump oil stays uncontaminated by the ignition cycle, so no oil changes are required. The oil in the mainshaft is completely fixed from the ignition interaction. The oil for Apex seals and crankcase grease is discrete. In cylinder motors the crankcase oil is defiled by ignition pass up through the cylinder rings.
Hope it is sufficient.
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I want to determine the Nusselt number (Nu=hDh/k) in the heat exchanger. In calculate of heat transfer coefficient (h=q''/(Tw-Tb)), for the q'' parameter, I use the total heat flux of the channel walls that is the contact with the fluid and use the average temperature of these walls for the Tw parameter. In this equation, I need the bulk temperature (Tb). How can I calculate it in Comsol multiphysics?
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V. The recursive least squares algorithm (RLS) allows for (real-time) dynamical application of least squares (LS) regression to a time series of time-stamped continuously acquired data points. As with LS, there may be several correlation equations with the corresponding set of dependent (observed) variables. RLS is the recursive application of the well-known LS regression algorithm, so that each new data point is taken in account to modify (correct) a previous estimate of the parameters from some linear (or linearized) correlation thought to model the observed system. For RLS with forgetting factor (RLS-FF), acquired data is weighted according to its age, with increased weight given to the most recent data. No prior 'learning phase' is required.
VI. Application example ― While investigating adaptive control and energetic optimization of aerobic fermenters, I have applied the RLS-FF algorithm to estimate the parameters from the KLa correlation, used to predict the O2 gas-liquid mass-transfer, while giving increased weight to most recent data. Estimates were improved by imposing sinusoidal disturbance to air flow and agitation speed (manipulated variables). The proposed (adaptive) control algorithm compared favourably with PID. The power dissipated by agitation was accessed by a torque meter (pilot plant). Simulations assessed the effect of numerically generated white Gaussian noise (2-sigma truncated) and of first order delay. This investigation was reported at (MSc Thesis):
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I am interested in the mathematical apparatus for this process, as well as the method of step-by-step modeling in the specified FE complex.
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Hi;
Please check the following attachement.
With my best regards
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i am getting an error whenever i am running the given attached simulation on ansys maxwell 16.0.
This arrangement consists of two electromagnets housed in two coil of copper winding supplied with ac voltage as shown.
I have given excitation voltage in both the winding separately as shown and boundary condition on coil as shown.
I am using transient solution as type of solution.
Any advice you provide me will be highly valuable.
Thank You
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Did you enclosed the model in a vacuum space or air box?
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Hello everyone,
I am presently working on project which alredy created by previous students on ansys workbench, where my work is to automatize set of variables in batch mode to genarate the data.
To do that i craeted small project, recorded python journal file and edited them to feed set of values to parameters eg:Young's modulus and results are printed out to text for each instance by running ansys in batch mode.
reference : https://github.com/kpestov/ParametricStudyAutomation (i follwed almost similar)
The example project worked perfectly fine and achived what i wanted but its not working with my actual projects where if i run the sript there will be no errors/warnings instead, at each iteration it prints out same output which is wrong.
My questions are
1. Does the warnings (not errors since the problem solved with all components with green marks, image1) which are genarated in workbench can cause problem to brakedown the script??
2. I found out that i can see some journal files in session file which named crashed but i cant really able to figure it out whats the problem, do you think these are main source of error for script to brokedown? (image 2)
3. Does anyone faced this problems or experience pleae share your thoughts.
Thank you and I eagerly waiting for your suggetions and helpful answers.
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Regarding the journal files, these files automatically be generated by ANSYS and it shows what was running in your Python program. I think part of the program that is feeding new numbers to the parameters is not working properly. Therefore, you are getting same results as you explained in your question.
Recording Python macro is a good idea to start developing your code, however, it is not going to fix all the problems and you need to check your code line by line to see where is the issue. Another important thing is that, the moment either Mechanical or DesignModeler is opened, then workbench is not able to record anything.
Attached please find a little script that enables connecting Excel to workbench. This code shows how to define a parameter, feed a parameter and extract final results in a Python macro.
Hope this answer helps.
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Hi, I am doing LCF analysis using direct cyclic approach in abaqus based on continuum damage mechanics, I am really confused about when the analysis would end?
It seems to me that the LCF analysis always end when the maximum number of cycles is reached. But the User's Guide said 'this process is repeated up to a point in the loading history at which a fatigue life assessment can be made',Does that mean the analysis would end if fatigue life could be made.However, my result showed that some elements were deleted due to failure,that's the fatigue life, why the analysis still went on till Nmax?
Another Question,I find that the 1st cycle always used up all iterations, for instance ,the dafault value of iterations is 200,then, 1st cycle would be obtained after 200 iteration. while subsequent cycles don't, they usually use several iterations. I don't know why.
please give me some advises if you know anything, I really appreciate it. Thank you in advance!
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Hi,
About your second question, I think the attached link can really help you. In this link, the procedure of doing fatigue analysis is completely explained and as you can see there, it states that: "It is impractical and computationally expensive to perform a cycle-by-cycle simulation for a low-cycle fatigue analysis; Instead, to accelerate the low-cycle fatigue analysis, each increment extrapolates the current damaged state in the bulk material forward over many cycles to a new damaged state after the current loading cycle is stabilized." So for the very first cycles, specially the 1st one, analysis is performed in more detail and then the next cycles will be analyzed by extrapolation based on the previous cycles. That's why the number of iterations in the very first cycles are greater than the other ones.
hope it would be helpful.
regard
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Hello,
I am doing a metal forming simulation in Abaqus, and I want to create a mesh similar to the one in the attached image. Particularly, on the "Blank" part, where there is a dissimilar mesh transition, going from fine to coarse.
I heard that if I use TIE constraints then this will work. But it is not clear to me how to do this?
How could I use TIE constrains in Abaqus to create and merge dissimilar regions of mesh density within a part?
Many thanks!
Hamid
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node to node contact instead surface to surface contact for tie constraint, can prevent the over constraint condition.
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Thickness and diameter shrinkage percentage of the Al2O3 sample (after sintering):
Diameter 20%
Thickness 18%
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thanks for your important question
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I can't quite catch the meaning of the definition of "single stiffness ". In the case of helical gears, which plane does c' defined in, the normal plane or the transverse plane? It seems to be in the transverse plane from the definition.
In the equation (80), c’=cth’CMCRCBcosβ. Why the fact for helical gears is cosβ?
cth’ for helical gears is calculated in the normal section (per unit contact line). Should it be cth’* cosβ/ cosβ= cth’ in the transverse section (per unit face width)?
Thank you for your time.
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What are the values of CM, CR, CB in this equation for spur gear?
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What can cause severe bending conditions on the wind power plant's tower(only the tower part)? I assume that as the wind hits the blades it create a bending moment which vary linearly from wing tip to wing base. This moment will be transferred from blade's base to the top of the tower ( we have then a model like a beam with one end fixed and a bending moment on top). And I think that this moment has larger condtribution to tower's bending than the force coming from the wind as it hits the structure. Correct If I am wrong.
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The bendig moment at the root of the blades dissipate locally at the top of the tower. These are local moments that do not carry on the cylinder. The bending moment at the base of the tower come from the force component on the blades and the wind pressure on the tower.
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I am simulating a solar powered absorption chiller. But I want to manipulate ots working time. For example, the system will run from 6 am to 10 am, then a break of 4 hours and then again run for four hours and then stop. How do I achieve this ?
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Dear Auritro,
Go to TRNSYS library>Utility>Time values> Type 21.
It gives you the time of simulation and you can define manipulate it.
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how can I find a common related project between chemistry (polymers or biomolecules) and mechanical engineering( for example fluid mechanics )???
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The following discussion seemingly can be found of some interest, concerning to your query:
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I'm using Ansys Fluent software for CFD simulation and I'm gonna to learn CFD coding and optimization and also UDF.
Thank you;
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Matlab is very good to start programming simple CFD codes. Then, according to the progress you achieve, you have to consider Fortran or C++. This latter is required if you want to program subroutine for OpenFOAM.
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What are some of the international/national travel grants that are available for Master's (M.Tech) students to present research in conferences/seminars/workshops/symposiums. Any suggestions regarding this will be greatly appreciated.
Thank You in advance.
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ICSSR,DST
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Hi
Im modeling test which first phase of that is displacement control (adding constant rate of displacement) and the next phase is load control (adding cycling load) ,more precisely after reaching specified load by constant rate of displacement cycling load must be applied,however something seems wrong.cycling load doesn’t being applied correctly, and in plot stress ,stress stays constant (stress at the end of first phase)in cyclic phase. so I deactivated the displacement control in following step(cyclic phase) but in this situation stress drops to zero, and for the last attempt I activated that again but I modified it too and made the displacement in following step zero but it didn’t help and stress decreased slowly, it must be mentioned I modeled cycling load alone in first step to see if the problem related to that but everything was correct and cyclic load applied correctly in this situation I will be thankful for your help.
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Simon Smith Thank you so much for your explanation 🙏
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It would be great if you can give me the details of such journals.
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MDPI Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
Link:
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Various things to be considered while selecting a suitable journal for research article submission?
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One can select a journal based on following in weightage of their significance.
1. Scope of the journal (does it fit to your work; generally found on journal page).
2. H-index
3. Publication type (Wiley or ACS or RSC or Nature or Elsevier or IOP or AIP or IEEE or etc)
4. Relevance to society
5. Impact factor
6. Review speed [data from publisher and author, see LetPub]
7. Open access or not
8. Indexed or not
Good luck!
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HEA fabrication
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In most cases high entropy alloys are prepared by melting the constituents together at high temperature. Since the entropy goes into the Gibbs free energy always as -TS, the role of entropy is higher at high temperatures. Many systems (but not all) therefore can be single phase liquid. The fast diffusion at high temperature and in liquid state distributes the atoms homogeneously in a short time. If the high entropy alloy is single phase at room temperature, too, the cooling can be made at medium rate. Attention is needed to prevent segregation of elements during solidification. Some tempering at temperatures just below the solidus temperature may be necessary to homogenise the alloy by solid state diffusion. If the solid state is not single phase a rapid solidification can produce single phase homogeneous alloy.
Another approach is to use powder metallurgy and homogenise the alloy by diffusion of elements during sintering. Homogenbeous distribution can be reached also by atomising the liquid alloy and sintering the powder particles.
A powder approach is also the mechanical alloying of mixed powders. Here the solid state diffusion enhanced by high defect densities can produce homogeneous alloy. However mechanical alloying in most case is connected with impurity pick-up from the milling system or from the atmosphere (oxygen).
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Hi
i am working as a lecturer in the department of Mechanical Engineering in Pakistan institute of engineering & technology. I have to assign complex engineering problems in my teaching course which is manufacturing processes.
Topic Details:
Forming & shaping processes and equipment, material removal, cutting tools, machining processes for producing various shapes, extrusion and drawing, sheet metal forming, forming & shaping plastics & composite materials.
Please suggest complex engineering problems from the above mentioned topics
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I also need the same answer. Mughees sb, have you found the question?
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I am a novice student doing a research project on water absorption in polymer composites with sodium silicate coating.
I want to ask about how to determine the result of the percentage of water absorption which is the sum of the percentage gain in body weight and the percentage of dissolved matter lost
for example, the conditioned weight is 9.76 grams then the wet weight at the time of immersion for 24 hours is 7.05 grams. Because there was a reduction in weight, my specimen was reconditioned with the result that the reconditioned weight was 6.83 grams.
Is it true that the percentage increase in weight was -27.77% and the percentage of dissolved matter lost was 30.02%? Then to determine the percentage of water absorption, just add (-27.77%) + (30.02%)?
Is there something wrong with my calculations?
please help in that case. thank you
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Dear all, it looks correct what you have done according to ASTM standard norm. However, it is quiet wise to use different analysis techniques to confirm your results, mainly dielectric one. Please see attached files. My Regards
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I am working with a tool which was originally a solid and I have transformed it to surfaces with Geometry edit --> Face --> Remove. This tool bends a previously imported sheet flange (3D part) . However, the simulation gets aborted when running because :
"The ratio of deformation speed to wave speed exceeds 1.0000 in at least one element. This usually indicates an error with the model definition. The elements contained in element set ErrElemExcessDistortion-Step3 have distorted excessively"
Watching the results, it just seems that my deformed part "surpases" the tool, which makes some elements distort. The simulation works with a solid tool.
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Please check with Ansys software
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My Senior design team is designing a Spring compressor for cars specifically, I was wondering if anyone is able to give me some guidance on what specific variables, or calculation analysis I should make before starting a design. Any help would be appreciated!
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For designing spring, I think the most important variables that you have to consider are Spring deflection, Spring force, Shear stress ideally, Spring rate, Winding ratio, Bar diameter, Correction factor, Spring coils, Corrected shear stress, Spring work, The rate of linear spring, natural frequency, load, torsion, etc.
For more detail, you can look to this work.... https://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12619617/index.pdf"
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I am working on Laser forming simulation using ABAQUS software. I could generate temperature accurately as per the reference paper I am following, but I could not match my results in displacement and bending angles.
Can anyone help me resolve this issue. If anyone is willing, they can contact me at 8074841553, (INDIA) or [email protected]
The paper I am following is attached below.
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Have you tried developing your model at same parameters like same material, laser parameters, and boundary conditions? Please share a pic or your simulated results ? I dont have much knowledge but i do have modeling experience of SLM process in Abaqus
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In daily life single period and multi period inventory system is very necessary things. When the selling period is fixed that is we cant sell things outside that fixed time then it is called may be single period. Lets talk about it what is the actual definition.
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Single period inventory models are used typically for determining the optimal order quantity for a perishable product. The most famous example is the Newsboy (Newsvendor) problem, in which the demand for newspapers for a given day is random, there is a cost of overstocking (unsold papers) and understocking (lost profits). The objective is to minimize the expected daily cost and the decision variable is the number of papers to buy (for reselling). this model is useful for any other item that cannot be stocked to be sold in another period, you have to sell it during the period or it is wasted. Many products fit this category: Christmas trees, Halloween costumes, or any other item that is special day or event themed. Fresh produce and meat can be though of in this category as well.
On the other hand, multi-period models are used for items that can be stocked for long periods of time, and demand in subsequent periods can be satisfied from the inventory. The basic EOQ model is the simplest of these models.
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Dear Research Gate Members,
Nowadays, everyone is talking about the new variant of Corona virus COVID-19 and its affects are alarming throughout the world.
Please, share your expert suggestions on the following question.
What is your expert opinion/experience/suggestion about the new variant of Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19)?
Thanks & Regards
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UK variant of SARS-CoV-2 is more lethal than the dominant circulating strains.
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I have a block of mass 'm' modelled as a spring-mass-damper system. A horizontal force F is acting on the mass as shown.
  • spring constant = k;
  • damping coefficient = c.
Most of the models I see has a vertical push/pull force on the mass. Then the free body diagrams becomes easy. How do I make a free body diagram in this case? Also, I am mainly interested in Moment induced on the bottom hinge point.
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The first option is a special case of the second one.
In other words, if the stiffness of the springs is too high, both formulas will give you the same answer.
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I want to find the rotation per unit length of a thin tube using their stress-strain characteristics in incremental theory.
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Torsion equation?
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it means the oil pump to be sometimes able to turn off during the driving cycle, and if it is possible, how efficient would it be? (more particularly in heavy vehicles like a bus).
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It depends upon the size of the accumulator, and the flowrate required. If you calculate the flowrate required for the PAS pump you could work out the accumulator volume required. See link below for typical (but a little old) energy consumption info.
However, many modern vehicles are moving to electric PAS systems, so the traditional hydraulic system may not be required in future.
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When it comes to choosing a good journal, it has always been debated which one is more important? Impact factor (IF) or journal quartile (Q)?
I give an example, you have three following journals, which one would you choose?
1- IF: 1.3 & Q1
2- IF: 2.5 & Q2
3- IF: 3.9 & Q3
Please select one of the three journals above and give a reason for that.
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Thanks for the response. However, after considering all of the criteria you mentioned, we have to choose a proper journal for our paper.
Let me put the question in this way, what makes a journal better than others!?
In the main question, I gave three examples; could you please choose one of them?
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The KGR test is done to obtain the shear stress-strain curve for any adhesive according to ASTM D5656 standard. The shear stress is reported to be the average stress. But nothing has been so clear about the corrected shear strain. Is it the average strain or the maximum strain?
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in the text, we have mentioned avg or max wherever necessary, respective to each plot
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Refer the book "Gas Turbine Powerhouse: The Development of the Power Generation Gas Turbine at BBC-ABB-Alstom" by Dietrich Eckardt (available at https://books.google.com/). On page 275 a reference of GT8 rotor damage due to high slenderness ratio is given. I could not find much about such effect in open literature. Does anybody know what is effect of rotor slenderness ratio (L/D) (or rotating body in general-any papers/references)? Few more specific questions:
  • What will be the effect of slenderness ratio (other than regular rotor dynamics parameters i.e. critical speed, unbalance response and catenary) on the behavior of steam turbine rotor?
  • Is there any allowable limit of slenderness ratio for a steam turbine rotor?
Regards
Naveen Bhatt
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It may lead to reduced stiffness of the blade and increase the deformation.
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Dear all,
Please how do I locate an Errata or corrected paper in Mechanical Engineering journals
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Interesting
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As shear strength of AA2024-T4 alloy is inversely proportional to the temperature. is there any equation to predict shear strength of AA2024-T4 with respect to temperature?
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The relationship between yield strength and temperature for AA2024 is,
Yield strength (MPa) = -2.628 * 10^3 + 25.85T - 7.81*10^-2* T^2 + 9.55*10^-5 T^3 + 4.14 * 10^-8 T^4
Ref:E.A. Brandes, G.B. Brook, Smithells Metals Reference Book, seventh ed., Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 1999
Shear strength = yield strength/ sqrt(3)
Through the estimation of yield strength we can estimate shear strength with respect to temperature.
Note : Relationship graphs i have attached in the question for your references.
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Hi,
I am a Master of Mechanical Engineering student and I am trying to determine the dimensions (cup size, diameter etc) of the acetabular model (STL) using Matlab and would like to get some suggestions on how I can achieve this.
Thanks in advance
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STL files contain no scale information, and the units are arbitrary. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STL_(file_format)
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Dear Research Gate Members,
Most of the cities in the world are facing partial or complete Lock Downs due to Pandemic Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) spread. Millions of people in the world are living in Government or self-administered Quarantines. The world is expecting a long time with it and continuously learning to live with it. In this situation Online Education/Distance Learning and Work From Home (WFH) are the ultimate new realities for many in the world.
Many organizations and Educational Institutions are doing “Online Education/Distance Learning and Work From Home (WFH)” very first time. Google ZOOM and Microsoft TEAMS became the top priorities for most of them. Many organizations and Educational Institutions are still confused in making the choice between Google ZOOM and Microsoft TEAMS. In this scenario, it’s really important to share your expert opinions and experiences.
Please, share your expert suggestions and/or recommendations on the following question.
How do you compare Google ZOOM Vs Microsoft TEAMS for Online Education / Work From Home during Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) Lock Downs/Quarantines?
Thanks & Regards
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Dear Muhammad Ali Khan I have made presentations using both Zoom and MS team. I personally consider Zoom to be user-friendly.
Thanks!
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I have radial blade centrifugal fan design which will be mounted on exhaust side of electric traction motor.
The fan will be mounted on same motor shaft inside the housing.
How can I verify that due to flow resistances there won't be any restriction to flow inside the motor and thus for cooling.
Thanks.
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Project objective: to improve the cooling of the electric motor.
So, mount a thermocouple inside the electric motor, thereby you can compare the internal temperature of the electric motor when using your centrifugal fan design x Standard design (or old design).
There are electric motors that are already supplied with this thermocouple option inside. But when disassembling the electric motor, you will find some point to fix the thermocouple.
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Yesterday night, I was working on some model in ABAQUS and all of a sudden it gets shut down. When I tried to reopen the model, it was not opening and since then every time I try to reopen it, it always creates new model on its own without showing any of the previous contents of the old model.
Although *.cae file is still of the same size (around 233 MB) and *.jnl file is also there. But I don't know how to run that *.cae file and recover the old model. I would really appreciate any kind of assistance in the above matter as it represents around 6 months of work.
Thanks in advance.
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when such crash files issue happens and when you start ABAQUS software every time the "crash recovery option" will pop up in the Abaqus/CAE screen environment. It will be recommended to choose or check " Do not execute the last command" option.
Good Luck!
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I am modelling a simple pipe flow of a non-newtonian fluid (Ansys CFX). I'm aware that this is an area of developing knowledge.
The viscosity model for the non-newtonian fluid is the Carreau-Yasuda model. The fluid properties are taken from literature (Escudier et al, 2005). I thought it would be interesting to plot the variation of viscosity with shear strain rate in CFX, and compare that to the original viscosity relationship.
The attached image shows this plot. Grey line: Original data (Escudier et al 2005). Yellow line: Original data plotted using CFX slightly modified Carreau-Yasuda equation (I need to look into this separately). Blue line: Laminar flow, approx Re=780. Orange line: Turbulent flow, approx Re= 45000. (N.B. picked these Reynolds numbers for a comparison, they're not arbitrary).
The question is: Why do the CFD results for shear strain rate vs. dynamic (apparent) viscosity deviate so far from the input relationship?
My thoughts are that this is a mathematical issue in the CFX solver. I'm having difficulty pinpointing an explanation though, my knowledge in this area is still developing.
For reference, I'm a Masters student in Mechanical Engineering.
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Okay....am doing a project in ANSYS CFX and it's about simulation of a non Newton fluid flow through an eccentric anular geometry...I want to generate some graphs on dynamic viscosity vs shear rate..
If you have any help I'll be grateful
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I am currently researching the impacts of components of digital transformation and Industry 4.0 (optimization, automation, digitalization) on the fairly old field of mechanical engineering.
Has mechanical engineering been able to keep up? Are mechanical engineers adapting - taking programming courses/getting involved in something that was once for electrical engineers?
Thank you in advance for any input.
Monica
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Automation without physical system is nothing. Automation is applied on mechanical system. You should be competent and expert in your field. Mechanical engineering is a bone of automation. Without bone no one can built structure.
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Dear Research Gate Members,
Due to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) spread, many cities are facing partial or complete Lock Down. Like other sectors, Higher Education is also affected badly due to these Lock Downs. To overcome this situation either many Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) have adapted the Distance Learning/E-Learning/Virtual Education or planning to implement it. Many Universities and/or colleges are new to Distance Learning/E-Learning/Virtual Education and are having issues in its implementation as well. In this scenario, it’s really important to share the expert opinions and experiences.
Please, share your expert opinion, experiences and/or suggestions on the following matter.
Which Learning Management System (LMS) is more suitable for Distance/Virtual Education or E-Learning in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs)?
If you prefer more than one, then please rank them.
Thanks & Regards
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I have been using Moodle as a student and as an instructor.
Other people consider also open-source LMS comparable options to be: Chamilo, Claroline and Dokeos.
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Hi
I have a problem where I am trying to vary the stiffness spatially across a structured interface. The whole idea is to vary the stiffness vertically, with a bulk stiffness of 8GPa decreasing smoothly over 100 micrometres to 2GPa. To achieve this I have been using the USDFLD subroutine in Abaqus to create a functionally graded material. The base Fortran code Ive started with is attached as txt file.
To vary the stiffness I have created a field variable to relate Young's modulus to the y-coordinate system which would be really easy to get the desired result if it was just one part (as shown in the contour plot). The main issue I have with varying stiffness when both parts are present in the assembly is the area where these intersect each other vertically  prevents my current code from working. Im very new to using subroutines, I think it should be fairly easy to create a code to enable the stiffness to vary for both identical parts.
The code I have works for one part, so would it be possible to take the functionally graded component and export it as a part and then assemble and add boundary conditions from there?
Any help would be greatly appreciated!
Alex
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Thanks for your answer, Ive added a figure just to clarify a few things.
Since there are two separate parts, my concern is if I have one material it will only define the stiffness for that coordinate system for one part properly ( say only the bottom part ignoring the top part). Does the temperature field data defined in the material relate to the part itself or the overall coordinates of the assembly?
I thought that if I only define one material property the interlocking area (circled in sketch), the material properties here would not be properly assigned. In these interlocking regions the stiffness values do not directly allign i.e. regions of low stiffness (2GPa) are in contact with regions of high stiffness (8GPa).
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Dear Research Gate Members,
Online Education / Distance Learning and Work From Home (WFH) are the ultimate new realities for many in the world due to Pandemic Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) spread. In this situation, many organizations and Educational Institutions are practicing “Online Education/Distance Learning and Work From Home (WFH)” now on regular basis. Google ZOOM and Microsoft TEAMS became the top priorities for most of them. Many organizations and Educational Institutions are still thinking to switch the meeting platforms. In this scenario, it’s really important to share your expert opinions and experiences.
Please, share your expert suggestions and/or recommendations on the following question.
Have you observed the improvements in Online Meeting Platforms during COVID-19? In this context, how will you compare Google ZOOM & Microsoft TEAMS?
Thanks & Regards
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Microsoft teams is the best platform for team meetings, group discussions and group seminars..
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I need the following tutorial zip files to learn the basics of the software:
  • Using sliding and dynamic meshes
  • Modeling solidification
  • Using the Eulerian Granular Multiphase Model with heat transfer
  • Postprocessing
  • Using the Adjoint Solver – 2D Laminar Flow Past a Cylinder
  • Simulating a Single Battery Cell Using the MSMD Battery Model
  • Simulating a 1P3S Battery Pack Using the MSMD Battery Model
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hi hope you are well in this current climate,
I am doing a project on Catia where i need to design a scissor jack like the one attached. however i wanted to know how i can calculate the dimensions and angles the criteria i have been given is it needs to hold 1.5 ton and have a minimum 30mm lifting capability
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Let's see. Breaking this down into its separate components, start with the simplest.
The maximum delta lift distance, from max down to max lifted, is going to be 2L. At its lowest point, the distance from the floor to the vehicle would consist of only the height of the stand and that top block.
The maximum Fs, which would be the maximum tension experienced by the long screw which lifts and lowers the jack, would be F*sin(α). As the jack goes from full down to full up, that weight goes from being entirely held up by the screw (sin(90) = 1) to being entirely held up by those four L components (sin(0) = 0).
And as you might therefore conclude, at max lifted position, F1 = F2 = F3 = F4 = 0.5*F. That's because when fully lifted, the weight is held up equally by F1 and F3, on the left, and by F2 and F4, on the right, while at the same time, at that fully elevated position, the long screw holds up none of the weight.
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methods to generate surface waves using COMSOL
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Dear All,
In case someone still follow this question, I asked this question long ago and during my PhD studies solved this question.
In order to generate surface acoustic or surface Rayleigh wave with vertical excitation component, following are some tips.
1. Surface waves exist at the surface of a semi-infinite half space, in order to observe such wave propagation, semi-infinite medium is mandatory.
2. If you are in COMSOL, you may use point load/prescribed displacement as an point for harmonic excitation either in frequency domain or time transient studies. Similarly, you can use applied load condition in ANSYS or Abaqus to do so.
3. For surface acoustic wave/Rayleigh wave, excite z-component/out-of-plane component (2D model) and in case of 3d model, induce excitation in x and z direction. For love wave or shear horizontal surface wave, excite the x and y component of load/prescribed displacement.
4. Use PML (perfectly matched layer) or low reflection boundary (LRB) at the both ends and bottom of the infinite half-space. This will avoid the back-reflection of incident waves from boundaries and ensure surface wave propagation at the semi-infinite surface.
Further details can be find in my papers given below. Pls do cite my work if you find them helpful. You can also visit my profile for more updated works in this realm. I am also attaching my YouTube video for better visualization.
Forest trees as naturally available seismic metamaterials: Low frequency Rayleigh wave with extremely wide bandgaps, International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 2020, 2043014. https://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219455420430142
Cheers!
Regards,
Muhammad
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Hello!
I am trying to define/assign initial stress to a coating I modeled on a substrate. I defined the coating using "skin" function. I have tried "predefine filed" in load section. But it only allows me to assign initial stress to the substrate (known as region), not the coating (skin). I appreciate your kind suggestions!
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through this maybe you could predefine your initial conditions better and optimize with respect to your boundary surface conditions that you plan to apply to your structure.
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Hello!
I'm trying to model a multi-layer coating on a substrate in abaqus. The layers are homogenous and isotropic. My question is how should I approach the modeling?
WHAT I'VE TRIED SO FAR:
I used the skin function, but I can only see the latest skin I defined (Can't visualize all the skins to see their position at the same time). So, I can't be sure if all the skins are properly defined!
COMPOSITE LAY-UP:
I tried this approach and was able to define the layers. But this approach requires fiber rotation angle as input while my materials is isotropic and homogenous.
WHAT I PREFER NOT TO DO:
I can partition my model and define the individual layers manually. However, The problem is I then have to mesh each partition (layer). This means the mesh size will be extremely small along normal direction and I get mesh verification warnings.
I appreciate your kind suggestions
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Сoncerning 1st approach, look at Using offset meshes to create skin reinforcements: https://abaqus-docs.mit.edu/2017/English/SIMACAECAERefMap/simacae-c-edtconcstrategyoffsetshell.htm
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We are working on the frictional mechanics and need to see this source.
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I am required to perform turning operation at constant velocity and depth of cut but for different feed using Abaqus. However I can't understand how do I associate feed in my model/simulation.
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You need to understand what the process is you are modelling in a 2D orthogonal cutting simulation. There are two real machining operations which could be close analogs:
1. facing the end of a tube with the same wall thickness as the thickness of the cutter.
2. Turning down the radius of a fin with the same thickness of the cutter
In both cases, the feed speed and the depth of cut are not independent parameters. The depth of cut is the distance that the cutter advances (at the feed rate) during a single rotation of the work piece.
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I am working on a capstone project for my mechanical engineering degree. Our design is an attachment for dental drills that will detect the drilling depth as the procedure is happening and will notify the dentist when the correct drilling depth is achieved. In order for the design to detect the drilling depth (up and down linear movement) there must be a sensor that can measure how deep the drill has moved down into the tooth. This sensor will be wired to a wifi enabled microcontroller which will send the data to an iot platform that is integrated with matlab to process the incoming data. We need to provide a proof of concept as ar real prototype is out of the question due to covid.
TL/DR: Is there a sensor small enough that can be attached to a dental drill that can measure linear position (up and down)?
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Maybe you could try to add a built-in sensor or try the x-layer to test the deep.
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I am currently looking for ideas for my thesis (Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering) and I am trying to see what possible areas within the 3D printing community would possibly be suitable. Any suggestions would really be appreciated!
Edit: one possibly idea is something regarding using 3D printing to help during a pandemic?
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You can go for the Blending of polymers and go for new 3D printed materials to overcome existing materials.
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What are some of the current available research grant opportunities(i.e. name of funding organizations, process for availing funds, special eligibility requirements(if any)) for M.Tech (Mechanical) students in India?
Any information regarding it would be highly appreciated.
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MHRD Scholarship for M.E., M. Tech. Students
As per the directives of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India, the following procedure is to be adopted for admission to post graduate programmes (Master’s and Doctoral ) with MHRD Scholarship assistantship.
Scholarship provider
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) Organization Government of India
Eligibility criteria
A candidate is eligible for Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) Scholarship/Assistantship if he/she has qualified GATE. To avail the scholarship assistantship, additionally, the candidate must secure admission to such a postgraduate programme, as per the prevailing procedure of the admitting institution. GATE qualification by itself does not guarantee admission. GATE qualified candidates in Engineering disciplines are also eligible for the award of Junior Research Fellowship in CSIR Laboratories.
Benefits of scholarship/Award
  1. ME/M.Tech./M. Pharm : Rs. 5,000/- per month.
  2. D. with M. Tech. : Rs. 9,500/- per month.
  3. Without M. Tech. : Rs. 8,000/- per month.
  4. Contingency Grant: ME/M.Tech./M. Pharm : Rs. 5,000/- per annum.
Ph. D. : Rs. 20,000/- per annum.
Application Procedure
Candidates are advised to seek details about admission procedures and availability of MHRD Scholarship/ Assistant-ship from the Department of their interest or post-graduate office of the concerned institution.
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Dear Researchers,
I would like to compare the environmental load of dry and wet grinding under laboratory conditions (later with the scale-up method also for operating conditions). I have already performed the laboratory measurements for the grindings of the same material and in addition to the grinding parameters. I calculated specific energy requirement values for dry and wet grinding processes. Are there any researchers who have compared the results of dry and wet grinding with possibly LCA analysis? I would have some questions about LCA analysis that I am currently unsure about. Thank you very much. Kind regards, Viktoria Mannheim
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Additional question are you going to grind wet material (seeds) or add water to it? Do you measure how wet material is before grinding? Halina Maniak possibly can help you...
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I am looking for a formula to calculate specific temperature drop in duct based on airflow, knowing the specific power loss, airflow, thermal properties of the duct, and air temperatures. The goal is to be able to produce the graph attached.
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I can digitize the curves and obtain a formula that will accurately reproduce them if that would help. It doesn't tell why or reveal the basis but it's something, perhaps a step toward achieving the ultimate goal.
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As insulation materials are generally used in the pre melting or much safer temperatures, I am finding difficulty in getting data such as latent heat of fusion of any insulation materials. Can anybody provide me with the latent heat data of any insulation material, glass wool or rock wool?
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Measurement of thermal properties at elevated temperatures By : Robert Jansson
Organized Framework of Main Possible Applications of Sheep Wool Fibers in Building Components
By: Monica C.M. Parlato and Simona M.C. Porto
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Dear all,
I am trying to apply material mapping to the vertebral model. I exported image data and surface model (.stl) from the 3D slicer, but when the same are imported IA-Femesh, there is no overlap, so cannot apply the image intensity based properties.
Can you please help me to resolve this issue.
Is it possible to link the IA-FEMesh to 3D slicer?
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make more than one surface
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I am making a LAMMPS simulation for a surface grinding procedure for my final year Mechanical Engineering project. Does anyone know where I could find the parameters (Epsilon and Sigma) for the Lennard Jones interaction?
Maybe eam too but I want to keep the model as basic as I could.
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It would be better to use a (modified) EAM potential for this or something that better reproduces angular dependence. See https://www.ctcms.nist.gov/potentials/system/Ta/ for a lot of examples.
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Consider a voltage drop V is applied on two electrodes, which are inserted in the electrolyte solution. When increases the electrolyte concentration, the conductivity of the solution increases. The resistance reduces and the current increases. Imagine a limiting case, the electrolyte concentration is large enough so that the solution acts as a conductor. Thus, the voltage drop V cannot exist. So V=0. Here comes my question: how does the voltage drop change when electrolyte concentration is increasing to such limiting case? It will be great if you can suggest any textbook for reference. Thanks in advance. 
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Absolutely right said, with increasing electrolytic concentration there will be almost negligible voltage drop as higher concentration will provide a smooth conducting media for the flow of electrons(amperes), as the resistivity of the solvent will go lower as per concentration of the solute increases.
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MICLASS and DCLASS coding system in group technology follow which type of coding: monocode, polycode or mixcode? Why Opitz classification and coding system is a mixed code. I can understand that there is the feature of polycode, but I cannot find any feature of monocode or hierarchical order in Opitz coding system.
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Sorry for the very very late answer (I saw this question now only).
This article has list of references that answer your question "Feature extraction from STEP (ISO 10303) CAD drawing files for metalforming process selection in an integrated design system"
The article is available on researchgate
please refer the references listed in it
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  • How to find a relationship between velocity and weir landing length (X') as shown in figure?
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That seems more like a homework... I suggest to have a look to this textbook: Fluid Mechanics by White.
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Hi,
I have done a 3-point bend test experiment.
I have also done a 3-point bend simulation using the true stress strain values obtained from tensile experiments.
The graph output of simulation does not match with the experiment and is it because of the true stress strain (Abaqus) vs the engineering stress strain (experiment).
Thanks in advance.
Regards,
Jerin Wesley R
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Dear Jarin,
It can be done but technical difficulties will come which is onset of crack-stabilization is delayed in the bending tests. So it will be different from tensile tests.
Ashish
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Dear Colleagues,
I have recently graduated with a BSc in Mechanical Engineering. During my BSc, I assisted research and projects on a variety of fields ranging from nanomechanics of advanced materials (experimental), predictive analysis of stochastics data input for control (MATLAB), human balance control (theoretical), dynamical modeling of fluid/solid coupling problems, and corresponding CFD in OpenFOAM, computational aerodynamics with HPC. Upon my graduation, I joined a research team at ETH Zurich as a scientific assistant to work on vortex kinematics (theoretical and computational).
My main interest areas are:
  • Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos, Stochastic Systems, Machine Learning of Dynamical Systems and Fluid Dynamics, Prediction, Nonlinear Control
  • Computational Finance, Financial Analytics
  • Numerical Methods, Computing and Algorithm Development
Clearly, all of the fields mentioned above require a decent knowledge of mathematical modeling, analysis, and computation (mostly by parallel computing over HPCs). One can also argue that these areas are not really far from each other as they can be all classified into an umbrella field of Dynamical Systems Theory.
I will soon start my MSc in Computational Science and Engineering at ETH Zurich. However, I am struggling to decide which specialization area I should choose.
As a part of the program I have to enroll at least in two of the following CORE SUBJECTS:
  • Advanced Numerical Methods for CSE
  • Optimization for Data Science
  • Computational Statistics
  • Advanced Systems Lab (Fast Numerical Codes)
Of this, I am planning to take all as they are rich in content, relevant to my multidisciplinary taste, and beneficial for my future plans. They are also fairly complementary to one another.
I will also have to take two mandatory subjects as a part of the admission requirement:
  • Numerical Methods for CSE
  • High-Performance Computing Lab for CSE
*The program requires me to take 5 courses in my selected specialization area. The rest of the credits necessary to graduate can be chosen freely from any department.
ETH is a top-notch institute for education and research in all three of Control & Robotics, Fluid Dynamics, and Applied/Computational Mathematics. This at least ensures that whatever I choose I will still get a quality education and have a chance to do quality research.
As we all know, modern areas such as robotics, data science, software engineering, neuroscience, computational biology and etc. have rather well-defined career paths. These people would not have as many troubles as a multidisciplinary guy (e.g. my MSc program) to decide what subjects to take and what to focus on.
Now, I lost 2 lost years between the high school and university and I believe this has eliminated some of my flexibility in this kind of decision, especially given that I am in a distance relationship of which I have to also take care of. It is likely that I will prefer to stay at ETH for my Ph.D. or work some time here before my Ph.D. I may also choose to do my Ph.D. in one of the other top schools.
I really appreciate your opinions and advice!
Thank you for your time and patience!
Kind Regards
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CFD is applied to a wide range of research and engineering problems in many fields of study and industries, including aerodynamics and aerospace analysis, weather simulation, natural science and environmental engineering, industrial system design and analysis, biological engineering, fluid flows and heat transfer. You can get the full list by doing google with “CFD meshing software”. Make sure that you are learning the software which is getting used in the company you want to work for. When you learn meshing, it's better to understand fundamentals of grid generation.
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I am using Abaqus Python scripting to model the following sketch. The dashed green line (Curve_0) is a half circle and the yellow one (Curve_1) is a circle arc. The center point of Curve_2 (which is another circle arc) named Cen_2 must be located on Curve_1. Assuming the x coordinate of Cen_2 is x_Cen_2, its y coordinate can be easily calculated using the equation of Curve_1. However, this point is not located on Curve_1 which might be due to some graphical complexes or any other reason (please see the figure). In this regard, I have tried several approaches to solve this issue. But none of them has worked. I would appreciate if anyone could kindly advise.
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Dear Dr. Victor J. Adlucky, many thanks for your helpful response.
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Hi,
Previously I worked on combustion engines....
But now due to my new adviser, i want to work on nanotechnology...
I want to work on a subject that relates to both nano and engine ...
Do you have any suggestion?
Regards
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Dear Dr.
Yes, this is a work of modern methods. For delicious reasons, adding nanoparticles has many advantages. It has the ability to improve the performance and emissions in the engine as well as improving the thermal behavior of the engine. Adding nanoparticles to improve Oil by adding these materials to the lubricant oils. There are many advantages.
Best Regards
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Hello everyone,
I am doing machining simulations. For any lubrication assisted machining process, lubrication will decrease the coefficient of friction at the workpiece-tool interface and lubricant will also take the heat out of the system. For the heat taken out from the system, to my best knowledge, I have to measure the heat transfer coefficient. But what about the reduction in coefficient of friction? How can I measure the reduced coefficient?
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Dear Rana,
Both pin-on-disc and open tribometer are able to replicate the sliding velocities and contact pressures during cutting to some extent; however, open tribometer can simulate continuous sliding against freshly regenerated surface. The friction coefficient can be measured experimentally in dependence of the relative sliding velocity, contact pressure and temperature during machining with MQL.
The three machining conditions: (i) dry rubbing, representing the dry machining condition, (ii) MQL applied to front face rubbing which was similar to milling with MQL can be applied on the insert rake face and (iii) MQL applied to rear end rubbing which was similar to milling with MQL applied on flank face. Tribological tests can be carried out with coated tungsten carbide pins rubbing on CrMoV5 steel cylinder.
Ashish
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I have start my study about MD simulation of Refrigerant condensation. I am studying the LAMMPS software for my MD simulation. But I am not clear that how I could write a input script in LAMMPS for a particular refrigerant for example R600a in the capillary tube system and how to create the potential file of the Refrigerant?
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Researchers can also visit the lammpstube.com
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Especially in turning operation using CNC machine.
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This is a well-researched area. There is a lot of publications in the machining and grinding domain. The following is an example of machining of Ti-alloys
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Can anyone tell how to create two boxes connecting with a cylinder and make the whole system confined in Lammps ?
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Sir can you suggest how to merge two different lattice structure in LAMMPS input. Also, the system is having a ternary system. Say for example Aluminum and Silicon dioxide.
Thank you.
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What according to you should be researched/accessed with respect to WC based solid lubricant tools? What is your view with respect to future research in this area? (For e.g. Tribological study etc..)
Thanks in advance..
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Thanks Soumitra Paul sir for your extensive in depth answer. I will surely go through the articles.
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To find equivalent static loading of dynamic events, displacement vector of the dynamic analysis could be used as attached picture.
To use this method in Abaqus, how we could export the displacement vector of Dynamic, Explicit analysis result and import it as equivalent static load in another Static, General analysis?
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If to use displacements of dynamic analysis as boundary conditions for static analysis, then corresponding reactions wil give equivalent static loading sought (at least for lineal systems).
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hi friends.
i m working on large industrial centrifugal fan to investigate causes of failure.
How to calculate forces acting on Large industrial centrifugal fan blade to be considered in the Finite Element modelling(specially fluid forces)?
are there any Formulas for calculating fluid force or i should use CFD simulation?
thanks for your recommendations.
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Sure.
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Titanium maching
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Sub-micronic straight tungsten carbide turning tools can be used to machine (turning) titanium alloys with copious application of cutting fluid (soluble oil).
If you have the facility for high-pressure cooling, then cutting speed can be enhanced substantially. Please refer to:
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As we have seen that most powerful and expensive quadcopters being swept away by prevailing wind gusts and losing connection with the controller, and even that “fail-safe” GPS-enabled Return To Home feature will struggle and oftentimes fail when flying into a strong headwind.
How to make it reliable and robust for sever weather conditions?
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First basic step is to define "strong wind" speed, and then compare that with the quadcopter's maximum speed. No Return To Home (RTH) feature can be effective as long as wind speed > quadcopter maximum speed so "speed" has to be first defense. Once quadcopter max speed is exceeded, it is just be a matter of time before the quadcopter is out of ground control range; options then are to land, and wait for input, (maybe not a great option in heavily wooded areas, or over water), or switch to an autonomous mode which will attempt return to base GPS location as long as power allows.
Next consideration would be turbulent response; in strong winds, particularly in urban areas, where wind gusting around buildings will make control response times critical.
Note also that GPS-enabled RTH features will struggle with tall obstacles, be they trees or high rise buildings, that block the (most direct) return path.
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Many informal settlements have insufficient capacity to forecast, check, handle and reduce disaster risk. These communities face a growing range of challenges including economic hardship, technological and social impediments, urbanisation, under-development, wildfire, climate change, flooding, drought, geological hazards and the impact of epidemics such as HIV/AIDS and COVID-19, sometimes termed ‘the burden of disease’. The inability of these communities to withstand adversities affects the sustainability of initiatives to develop them.
This is a question I would have asked during my masters degree research on Resilience in Disasters. I would like to know the opinions of other researchers as I would like to properly answer this question in a different research-related topic.
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i think the attitude and positivism of the community and their leaders is one big factor to add.