Science topics: Biology
Science topic

Biology - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Biology, and find Biology experts.
Questions related to Biology
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Another way of phrasing this question would be: Is there a chance that a transformed plasmid with homologous sequences does not recombine with the chromosomal DNA? If so, will a cell still be selected due to the plasmid vector containing the selectable marker? Accordingly, if previous statements are true, would one have to run multiple samples through a gel and select the colony without the plasmid (my guess)?
Relevant answer
Answer
I have constructed several mutants in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa using the allele replacement techniques (double recombination). The plasmids I used had a temperature-sensitive origin of replication, so when you shift the temperature you get rid of the plasmids and conserved the clones with recombined fragments.
However, even when you think you had got rid of the plasmid, you need to screen several clones with PCR to identify the good clones because the plasmid in some clones mutate and become resistant to temperature. Even when you don't use this approach of temperature-sensitive plasmid, you need to screen with PCR to identify the good clones that have the recombinant fragment and not the plasmid.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Hello, research community,
I am looking for some open problems in bioinformatics specifically in the area of, but not limited to, proteomics, and genomics. Since I am new to this area, any useful suggestions, a discussion on open problems and relevant resources are welcome.
Thanks.
Rahul
Relevant answer
Answer
examples:
Protein structure prediction
single cell RNA/DNA unsupervised learning/clustering
correlation of gene expression & variation with clinical outcomes
many more open problems tbh
e.g. see DeepVariant by google research
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
2 answers
Hello all,
I am attempting to determine the concentration of B. diminuta bacteria in an inoculated broth after 24 hours at 30 C on a shaking incubator by performing a spot plate of diluted samples and back calculating the original concentration. When I perform this, I am consistently getting very high CFU/mL values of approx. 1x10^11 CFU/mL. Can someone look over my experiment and tell me if I am making an error somewhere or is this value correct?
1) Inoculate 500 mL of Saline Lactose broth with inoculating loop dipped in pre-prepared glycerol stock of B. diminuta. Incubate on shaking incubator for 24 hrs. at 110 rpm.
2) Make eight 10x serial dilutions from 10^-1 to 10^-8 using 5 mL in 45 mL peptone water (1 g/L).
3) Plate 20 uL of each dilution in duplicate on Tryptic Soy Agar plates, allow to dry for approx. 5 minutes, and place in static incubator upside down for 18-24 hours or until colonies are visible for count.
4) Count the average # of colonies per dilution and calculate the CFU/mL using the following calculation: CFU per ml = Average number of colonies for a dilution x 50 x dilution factor.
Example: 10^-8 dilution average colonies: 19, (19 x 50 x 10^-8) = 9.5 x 10^10 CFU/mL.
Thank you for any assistance you can offer
Relevant answer
Answer
As Michael said, 10E11 cfu/ml seems well beyond what one would expect.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Hi, I'm an undergraduate majoring in biology. I'm passionate about molecular cell biology (basically anything inside Bruce Alberts molecular cell biology) and was wondering, what are the big question in this field that has not been discovered? are there still unknown molecular mechanism that needs to be studied?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi. There are still 5 things we don't know about cells. See the link below to have full details:
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
Hello, I'm an early career PhD student. When people ask me questions e.g. In conference or lab meeting, even when I know the answer my mind tends to go blank and I say I don't know just to get out of the situation. I used to be good at answering questions and taking time to think and answer , especially during my bachelors degree. As time was gone by I feel I have gotten worse mainly because I am afraid the answer will be ridiculous and made fun of as I have reached a very advanced level where everyone knows what they are talking about. After all these years sometimes I get tired of science in general and have no motivation to read up on my project , so sometimes I genuinely don't know the answers which makes things worse . I used to have a lot of passion which is what put me on this path, but at the moment I'm tired of science which is making it hard to answer peoples questions and i think people are starting to notice. My answers are generally non specific and waffley, and I was wondering if anyone has tips to overcome these problems. I am interested in my project and deep down I love science and wish I could do better and go back to how I used to be and express my answers logically and what is expected at this level. This is especially important for my thesis defense, I need help and tips please on how others process these questions and defend their work. This problem has also started to overflow into my writing where I can't think properly or focus with the overwhelming amount of information.
Relevant answer
Answer
Also to defeat fear, you must program your mind. Mind preparation is a strategy to defeat fear.Tell yourself you can do it. Don't limit yourself, you will be amaze what you can do when you program your mind.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
I read this report that 3% (v/v) Ethanol increases recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. The SDS PAGE gels seem pretty convincing (1).
However, assuming I get great expression of recombinant protein with 3% (v/v) Ethanol, how am I supposed to decontaminate the biohazardous cell waste from the experiment?
Bleach decontamination isn't a good idea because bleach would react with the ethanol.
Autoclave decontamination isn't a good idea because ethanol is flammable.
Is safety just not a priority?
Source:
1) Chhetri G, Kalita P, Tripathi T. An efficient protocol to enhance recombinant protein expression using ethanol in Escherichia coli. MethodsX. 2015;2:385-391. Published 2015 Oct 8. doi:10.1016/j.mex.2015.09.005
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Adron Ung . The reactions of bleach and ethanol I have seen contain at least 70% ethanol. I'm skeptical that 3% ethanol + bleach could cause significant production of dangerous chemicals.
But you can always keep the 3% ethanol + bleach waste in a fume hood overnight just to be on the safe side.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
34 answers
how do you understand life as it is really big suspense, why we are here, our consciousness is big unconsciousness and our unconsciousness big consciousness.
Relevant answer
Answer
Treat others as you expect to be treated.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
Hi All, I am working with A549 cell line and trying to culture spheroids using low attachment 96 well plates. So far I have attempted some different seeding densities from 2000 to 10,000 cells and can either form very large spheroids (700-900um), which are more compact and have a spherical defined shape, or alternatively smaller spheroids (still fairly big though around 500um) are less compact and not completely spherical. However for my experiment where I wish to add drug compounds (2D IC50 approx 1uM) I am not observing significant size/morphology change on the larger spheroids despite at least a 10uM concentration for 1 week. I am thinking possibly I can try to treat smaller spheroids for a more obvious visual change. Does anyone know how i might successfully make small compact spheroids (less than 500um) which are reproducible with this cell line? Thanks in advance for any help someone may be able to provide.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Sophie, I have worked with this cell line and also for spheroid formation in my Ph.D. thesis, So I suggested you control the cell number when you going to seed in 96 well, this in turn leads to control the size of the spheroid, however, if you use microfluidics or lab on chip systems you can generate a huge number of the spheroid in one chip and also control the size of the spheroid, one of the main factor in drug screening studies (larger than 400 um in size spheroid are not suitable as the cells in core zone can not access to nutrients and drug and also they are under hypoxia),
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Say a researcher was interested in determining the number of adults vs. juveniles of species X trapped during a small mammal survey. Does there exist a relatively reliable way of doing this based on standard field measurements?
Let’s say a total of 200 individuals of species X were sampled, and the following data recorded: sex, total length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length, and weight. For the sake of this question imagine no additional data is available (e.g. additional observations recorded in the field, access to collected specimen material, etc.).
  1. Is there a way to ascertain a point or “threshold” from a range of data based on the distribution of values to distinguish between juvenile and adult individuals with a meaningful degree of accuracy? For example, male species X with weight > 142 g = adults; < 142 g = juveniles.
  2. If yes, which of these measurements would be most indicative? Or perhaps a combination/ratio of more than one (e.g. ratio of hind foot length to ear height > 1 = adult, etc.)?
Thanks, and looking forward to the feedback.
Evan
Relevant answer
Answer
Have you assay with imprinting phase puppies dogs?
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
During my first year of M. Sc. of Biology this year (2021), I did an exercise to learn how to write a grant proposal.
I wanted to do it on a topic which seem "taboo" : HUMAN OVERPOPULATION.
Could you share some references about this topic please ?
Like Climate Change, I think this topic is very urgent to discuss, to treat.
I share my modest, naive and fictive work on it.
Thanks for your collaboration.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Setha; There is an utterly massive literature on the subject. You might try going on Google Scholar and entering "Optimum human population size". ...or similar terms. Read stuff from the last 3 or 4 years and you'll get some ideas.
The subject is touchy politically but demographers and ecologists have been thinking about it for ages. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
9 answers
Hello everyone. Can someone please tell me, is there any database of research projects from where I may get details of various ongoing or completed projects?
Thank you very much!
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
159 answers
In my opinion, the issue of ecology should be added or extended to educational programs, including issues related to greenhouse gas emissions, faster global warming process, indispensability of implementation and development of ecological energy innovations based on renewable energy sources, improvement of degraded reclamation techniques civilization of the natural environment, sorting garbage, recycling, the need to reduce the use of plastic in product packaging, etc.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Should the scope of environmental education in schools be increased?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Dear Dr.Dariusz Prokopowicz,
I consider it necessary to implement programs that affect the safeguarding of our Ecosystem for our students, and our future as human beings also goes into this. In Among the advisable activities, we could propose: 1.-Visits to Aquariums as an educational activity. 2.-visits to thematic museums or exhibitions on Ecology. 3.- Hiking and outings to the countryside, the mountains or the sea. 4.-Activities that require the search and elimination of invasive plants. 5.- Organize groups of volunteers to clean up polluted beaches and rivers. 6.-Publicize the groups of environmental associations and interact with them. 7.- Promote agricultural activities with the creation of small gardens in the Schools, and if possible, in planting trees.
With all my respect
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
I interesting in the biology of fish now, have some things, I don't understand about maturity fish. How do we know or make sure that the L50 assessment is really mature fish if not using the GSI method? please
Relevant answer
Answer
Good question...
As someone pointed out clearly, histology of gonads can be used to see whether fish is matured or not. But again, the question comes why you want to see the maturity in fish? Do you want to do any experiments or want to do some breeding trials? If your interest is to do the breeding, then try to notice the body colour and behavioural patterns. In general, most fish exhibits a change in body colour when they get matured; but again depends on the species...
Hope my answer is useful...Good luck!
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Hi,
I and working on a project for extraterrestrial life, and i need few work on the titled topic. If is there any data, recommend it or please discuss the evaluation mechanism.
Thank you,
Muhammad Furqan Ali
Relevant answer
Answer
You can search for the following articles: National Environmental and Natural Resources Information System Environment and Temperature Report, light, atmosphere, wind
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Biology Experimental, Theretical and Philisophical question.
Might contribute to understanding the unicellular organisms source and properties.
Relevant answer
Answer
It might not contribute anything because the question is fundamentally wrong. DNA does not influence or affected any organism. Do you expect that there existed any kind of organism uni or multicellular before the origin of DNA?
And there is absolutely no proof of how life or DNA originated of early earth. All the knowledge/information available till date are more or less like hypothesis.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
The bacteria contains two megaplasmids, one of which is 233kb. Using a Qiagen miniprep kit with spin columns, is it possible to elute even a small amount of DNA this large? Are there any modifications to be made which do not involve obtaining the anion-exchange kits designed for large constructs?
Relevant answer
Answer
lyse and neutralize your plasmids using kits reagents then take the supernatant and perform phenol chloroform extraction followed by ethanol precipitation and get pure DNA extracted of any size.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
9 answers
Higher affinity for CO induce suffocation which may be fatal.
Relevant answer
Answer
Due to the competition of the same binding sites....
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
2 answers
We're working with the lovely garden eels: snake-like fishes that live in big colonies, attached to the sandy sea bottom. They feed on plankton and hide in their burrows whenever something big approaches. Here's a small video of them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v2WEkd9qMlw
To test whether they're using social information in their evasive behaviour, we found an edge of the colony and, after satying put for 3 minutes to ensure they were not hiding at that point, one of us slowly approached until the first eel retracted. We marked that point as our zero. Then, we marked the positions where the closest and farthest eels hide. We then measured the distances between our zero and the closest (Ri), and farthest (R1) points.
Now, our null hypothesis is that if Ri and R1 are equal, the information (the evasive behaviour) is not spreading, and therefore there's no use of social information. Our H1, then, is that if information is spreading, R1 > Ri. As every pair of R1 and Ri was taken at the same time, respect to the same point of reference (zero), and our data did not pass the Shapiro normality test, we're considering a paired Wilcoxon test. Is this appropiate? Our sample size is 68.
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, the wilcoxon test is appropriate for matched pairs of non-normally distributed data.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
54 answers
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Bharath Setturu,
Thank you for the link to the interesting publication provided:
My Village Biodiversity: Documentation of Western Ghats Biodiversity through Network of Students and Teachers.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
18 answers
As far as I know it has been dismissed as a closed cased of the history of science having no defenders left. However, that's not the feeling I get when the issue comes up in private discussions. I'm wondering if I have missed something, and if and how vitalism (or some refined modern form of it) is still considered to be a viable option by some biologists?
Relevant answer
Answer
Quazi-vitalistic areas full of numerous objects of description, which may be dismembered as an object by any briefly coherent subject, remain as the only evidence of which, as a human person, is a scalp or a corpse. McCarthy's psychopaths — restricted to Judge Holden's and Anton Chigurh's "cases studies" — are the incarnations of an alarming materialism and an immoral or amoral geology in which Darwinian evolution culminated in a corrupted "pinnacle."
Jane Bennett argues that by 'Vitality' is meant the power of things — foods, commodities, storms, metals, biology journals— not only to hinder, obstruct the will and the plans of people, but also to operate as Virtuality in the throttle valve of Actualization.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
8 answers
The lock and key theory on enzymes has shortcomings because it is unable to explain the stability of the enzyme when the enzyme reaction points are switched, then the induction theory is able to answer the shortcomings of the padlock theory. So, does the theory of induction fit actually have flaws? If so, what are the shortcomings of induction fit theory? And of the two theories, which one theory better explains how enzymes work? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
In the lock-and-key model, the enzyme-substrate interaction suggests that the enzyme and the substrate possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another. Like a key into a lock, only the correct size and shape of the substrate (the key) would fit into the active site (the keyhole) of the enzyme (the lock). It shows the high specificity of enzymes. However, it does not explain the stabilization of the transition state that the enzymes achieve. The induced-fit model suggests that the active site continues to change until the substrate is completely bound to the active site of the enzyme, at which point the final shape and charge are determined. Unlike the lock-and-key model, the induced fit model shows that enzymes are rather flexible structures.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
5 answers
We know that the brain sends and directs meaningful messages to control the patient's cells.
as we know, The brain is affected by factors such as diseases And we know that the brain also controls other organs of the body.nevertheless,Damage to the CELLS is visible on eeg?
Is Cancer Effective In EEG?
Relevant answer
I think it does effect. (stomach cancer?)
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
8 answers
As my experience and many consumer experience they feel the different taste of the same item served cooked in a different source, is it real or not, what is the reason behind this.
Relevant answer
Answer
In order to settle this issue, it would be necessary to investigate whether there are any physico-chemical different processes taking place during the heat treatment of prepared dishes for different variants of this action, i.e. depending on the use of different types of fuel (biofuel, wood, charcoal, dried manure, etc. ). If, in the course of the aforementioned preparation of certain food products, grilling or frying is used, then certain chemical compounds contained in the fuels used for heating the prepared dishes may get into the prepared dishes, food products and thus the taste changes.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
5 answers
Hello all,
I am conducting a network analysis on significantly upregulated genes through Metascape's PPI network algorithm. It generates some beautiful and very biologically relevant (looking at least) gene interaction networks. However, I am a bit wary of making any strong conclusions based on it.
Does anyone have experience with Metascape? How reliable the networks are and what can be done to convince someone (potential reviewers) that they are showing the true biology?
I would really appreciate any insights.
Thank you,
Best,
Sandeep
Relevant answer
Answer
In consideration with Mª Angeles Zorrilla Lopez-Perea
R-Studio is the best one and available for free access.
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
5 answers
I'm looking for a reliable and practical method to evaluate the energetic profile (ATP, ADP, PCr, ...) in a tissue. ( HPLC ? Enzymatic kits ? ..)
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much for your answers Yu. I'll look more into the mass spectrometry.
Have an excellent day !
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
72 answers
everyone has a certain strong statement and some heart touching thought for life, work research...many more whats your.
Relevant answer
Answer
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala) in the noble Quran says:
"وَقُلِ اعْمَلُوا فَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ"
الآية (105) من سورة التوبة
This verse means: "Work (righteousness): Soon will Allah observe your work, and His Messenger, and the Believers: Soon will ye be brought back to the knower of what is hidden and what is open: then will He show you the truth of all that ye did."
So, Sooner or later, we will be asked about everything in our life.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
13 answers
How can/should we distinguish between a Biochemical and a Chemical Reaction.
As per one explanation:-
Chemical reactions are discrete reactions with catalyst involved in the process where as in biochemical reactions there are a series of reactions involved with the product of one acting as the substrate for another and this complex process of interchanges taking place with the involvement of enzymes.
For a more specific example if we are conducting photosynthesis in vitro then it will be considered as a biochemical reaction rather than a chemical reaction.
But the dilemma stems from the fact that, even chemical reactions go through complex series of steps, like any organic synthesis reaction. In this case also there is the involvement of catalysts like enzymes. Thus, can we consider it as a biochemical reaction! But mostly we only attribute it to be a chemical reaction which is indeed the case.
So, what is the proper difference or point of distinction between a biochemical and a chemical reaction. How can we exactly relate that one reaction is a biochemical and the other is chemical!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear @Mrutyunjaya Panda All biochemical reactions are chemical reactions. I agree with Dr @Frank T. Edelmann in that in principle, there is no major difference. The same reaction can occur 'in vivo' and 'ex vivo'. You can also access a similar discussion at the following link:
Best wishes, AKC
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
5 answers
I've used phyre2 to model the protein for the simulation using Gromacs, but later I found that 2/3 proportion of the structure ( except for IDR ) had been already determined by X-ray crystallography.
The known structure contains Zn2+ to stabilize the structure of the entire protein, so I doubt phyre2 can predict decent structure. How should I model the structure of proteins using a known structure as a part of it?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
12 answers
I have predictions from mathematical models in the systems biology field, not yet confirmed experimentally. However, I would like to publish in pee-review journals free from publication charges.
Relevant answer
Answer
Scimago Journal & Country Rank:
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
7 answers
Hi,
I am doing a short survey with some of my friends in order to understand the need of researchers (from fabrication point of view). Ideally, our target audience is anyone who does fabrication or would like to use fabricated samples. It would be great if you could share your experience and fill this survey. In addition, we would really appreciate if you can pass it on to your friends/professors – they could be chemist/physicist/biologist/electronics device people etc. anyone as long as you think they fit in target audience.
Thanks a lot, really appreciate your help.
Relevant answer
Answer
THANK YOU I APPRECIATE
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
76 answers
The very interesting Hypothesis about Fungi on Mars was considered in the preprint "Fungi on Mars? Evidence of Growth and Behavior From Sequential Images" :
What is your opinion regarding this? I think that use AI/ML image recognition can be the next step of study this hypothesis until NASA will check this idea with help rovers on Mars. As input data for ML need use similar images of similar Fungi on Eart.
Relevant answer
Answer
If the fungi are found on the Mars, it means that Carbon and Nitrogen are present there.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
What is the actual process to construct a standard achievement test at secondary level?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very [email protected] Ramos-Vera
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
when I wash the cells that emit fluorescent by PBS for flowcytometry, emittion of rhodamine b is very low
Relevant answer
I am not sure if rhodamine b are sensitive to substances like washing, buffer or even PBS. Make sure the fluorophore is hold tight on the sample.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
5 answers
I am looking for an article that talks about the direct interaction of a nanoparticle and sars cov-2, but most of the articles talk about target proteins attached to gold nanoparticles, but I'm only looking for the interaction of sars cov2 with the nanoparticles. but I can't find that paper if exist.
(am trying to see the interaction in a solution of gold nanoparticles stabilized with povidone to see if they form clousters or how they interact in general)
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Juan carlos Dominguez Solis
Nanoparticle-Based Strategies to Combat COVID-19
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
35 answers
How should the systems of nature protection and biodiversity of natural ecosystems be dispersed in order to increase the effectiveness of these systems and reduce the scale of degradation of the natural environment?
What do you think should be improved in nature conservation systems and biodiversity of natural ecosystems in addition to just increasing financial outlays on nature conservation policies conducted by government agencies and ministries of the environment?
A significant part of financial expenditures of nature conservation and biodiversity policy is devoted to the promotion of nature protection and natural environment protection issues. However, the effectiveness of this type of promotional campaigns is low, because without applying legal restrictions, enterprises do not change their technologies to be more ecological if they do not see in this business realized in a short time. Even the occasional UN climate summits in which government representatives from the majority of countries take part do not cause significant real changes in the policy of nature protection and biodiversity? Usually, the largest industrial economies in the world do not sign the obligations of rapid reduction of greenhouse gases and the issue of increasing spending on environmental innovation in the energy sector. Why, despite the growing scale of public awareness, there is no significant improvement in the implementation of nature conservation and biodiversity policy, there are no real measures that would result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the slowing of the global warming process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
In my opinion, the key factors for the development of environmental policy and the possibilities of its application include: the level of budget of public funds that are used to finance the implementation of pro-ecological economic projects, the level of general social pro-environmental awareness of citizens, the branch and sector structure of the economy, including the structure of energy sources, etc.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
15 answers
In the multi-million year history of life on Earth there have been 5 great extinctions of species of fauna and flora.
In the context of human civilization activity and the rapidly progressing process of global warming, has the 6th species died out?
Please reply
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
The mass extinction of pollinating insects, including bees, in recent years is particularly worrying. The extinction of pollinating insects over the last few decades is one of the significant problems of the decline in the biodiversity of natural ecosystems and generates a strong increase in the risk of a decline in the productivity of agricultural crops. In the future, the issue of decreasing numbers of pollinating insects and falling rainfall, more frequent droughts, falling soil moisture, and soil barrenness may significantly reduce the production of agricultural crops and problems with feeding people. This problem can be particularly acute in poor countries located in the tropical and subtropical climates.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
8 answers
As i know , if we can realize the DNA structure , we can simulate it in computer . then we can try to rebuild it if possible .
so Given the technological progress, is it possible in the future?
Relevant answer
Answer
Compared to various living organisms characterized by a much lower level of organization and body structure, the human body has limited regenerative abilities. However, along with technological advances, in medicine, genetics, microbiological tests, etc., the possibilities of transplanting various organs, limbs, growing specific types of tissues and rebuilding certain parts of the human body are gradually increasing. One of the most difficult and perhaps impossible to implement in the future is the rebuilding of the central nervous system, including the human brain. Similarly, it will be extremely difficult in the future to build artificial awareness in artificial neural network systems as a continuation of the progress made in the development of artificial intelligence.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
46 answers
Protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development?
In the context of growing and increasing environmental pollution and declining areas of natural ecosystems, the importance and need to improve environmental protection systems, natural ecosystems and biodiversity is increasing. Biodiversity is one of the most important issues of natural ecosystems and life on Earth. Maintaining high biodiversity on Earth should be a challenge and one of the main goals of human functioning on the Earth in the 21st century and in subsequent centuries.
In connection with the above, protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable ecological development. In some countries, the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development is implemented successively, primarily in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques and recycling development. However, in many countries these issues are still insufficiently developed.
Still too small financial resources are allocated in many countries for the development of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation and recycling techniques. In addition to the private sector, besides enterprises implementing ecological innovations, it is necessary to increase expenditures and develop strategic pro-ecological reform projects, including restructuring of the mining industry of minerals supplying classic energy sources and development of energy based on renewable energy sources. This development should be supported and coordinated by environmentally friendly state intervention, and due to the high investment costs of construction of power plants producing electricity from renewable energy sources should be co-financed from the state public finance funds.
In this way, it will be possible to slow down the ongoing global warming process in the 21st century and thus slow down the process of devastating the natural environment, draining green areas characterized by high biodiversity. Biodiversity is a very important issue in the context of the analysis of ecology, sustainable development and the protection of the natural environment, including, in particular, the natural positions of biologically complex ecosystems, i.e. those that are characterized by high biodiversity. Maintaining biodiversity of natural ecosystems is one of the most important problems and tasks for people in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In the context of the above considerations, the following question is still valid:
How to increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dariusz Prokopowicz Environmental degradation, ecological imbalances, and loss of biodiversity have occurred throughout the world. There is intense pressure on natural resources. One way is to alleviate such pressure. The second approach relates to implementation and adoption of government supported participatory community approach; this will enhance effectiveness of programs related to protection of environment, ecosystem and biodiversity.
Best regards, AKC
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
10 answers
The current technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is determined by the development of the following technologies of advanced information processing: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies.
In view of the above, what kind of information technologies from the Industry 4.0 range and how will they help to protect the natural environment and biodiversity?
Please reply
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
Technologies of the current fourth technological revolution. ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 information technologies are used to improve the systems for analyzing the condition of the biosphere and climate, the condition of natural ecosystems, analyzing changes in the state of biodiversity, the scale of environmental pollution, the impact of negative factors of civilization development on specific natural sites, green areas, etc. Thanks to the improvement of technology diagnostic condition of the biosphere, it is possible to plan more precisely systemic programs and instruments for environmental protection, reclamation of natural ecosystem environments degraded in terms of civilization.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
121 answers
Biodiversity is diverse in virtually unlimited degree, which results from the essence of processes of evolution of species, filet lines and entire ecosystems. It is thanks to the millions of years of evolutionary processes on Earth that there are so many different natural and highly diverse ecosystems in which different species of flora, fauna, fungi and microorganisms adapt to life in different and very diverse geographical and climatic environments.
The largest biodiversity of ecosystems and species functions in natural environmental environments in which ecosystems have evolved without human impact through millions of years of climatic and geographical conditions enabling the development of various life forms. These types of high biodiversity sites can be found in unpolluted rainforest ecosystems in tropical forests, in temperate climates and in coral reefs.
Unfortunately, human civilization activity contributes to the successive and accelerating process of biodiversity reduction by dying out species of living organisms. The areas of natural natural ecosystems are decreasing, including those in which the greatest biodiversity is diagnosed, such as the rainforests of the Amazon. The protection of naturalistic ecosystems and thus the protection of the planet's biodiversity is the most important challenge for mankind in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
What do you think is the importance of biodiversity in natural ecosystems?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree Danung Nur Adli
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
Influence of ligand on an heterogeneous catalyst surface reactivity
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for sharing idea Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
2 answers
Hello everyone,
I am currently looking to get a column for the purification of my protein complex (approx. 1MDa in size, 7 proteins) that I'm tagging with a twin strep tag, by tagging one of the proteins on the complex, but I'm unsure about which column to get as this is my first time doing this type of purification.
I saw that IBA Life Sciences and Cytiva make streptactin columns, but the details are a bit confusing as there is a lot of variety with the type of columns that they offer. I also can't seem to find any other providers of these Strep-tag columns.
So please if you can help, let me know which column would be best for my purifications, and whether there are other providers.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Wissam,
I have been using the TwinStrep for several protein purifications setups in the last couple of years and had really convincing results so far by using resins from IBA. In fact, I guess that the TwinStrep technique itself was developed by IBA lifesciences- so I would stick with resins of this manufacturer since the are designed to provide optimal performance in combination with the TwinStrep Tag, which I guess is not explicitly the case with Cytiva resins.
For your application I would suggest using StrepTactin XT 4 flow resins, which are supposedly beneficial for large proteins as you are purifying this rather big complex
see here for information
Hope that helps! :)
Cheers,
Pascal
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
28 answers
I have just observed on the number of strawberries I was able to eat today that:
-when you carefully take the leaves off the strawberry
-the back of the strawberry shows a pentagonal shape
See picture
Any biological article on this observation?
Relevant answer
Answer
Frankly, I liked the topic, so I opened the refrigerator to eat strawberries and made sure of the correctness of your comment 🍓🍓🥀
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
11 answers
I come from a chemistry background and so I’m used to thinking in terms of proportions, so forgive me if my thinking is completely wrong.
***
I’d like to simulate a reaction that occurs in the human body. I will keep the pH and temperature the same as it is in the human body so the enzyme can function optimally, it is a lactonase enzyme found in human blood so I think these 2 factors wil be important.
From what I understand enzymes can become saturated and won’t work once they reach this point so there is some logic behind my thinking.
Therefore there must be an ideal or threshold amount of the enzyme to use.
***
Generally how is this calculated?
Is it per mol? Or is it specific for each enzyme and the task it performs?
I am struggling to find any information about this on the web and so would appreciate some insight into this problem.
Relevant answer
Answer
You have a misconception, which I totally understand due to your background. When the enzymes become "saturated" it doesn't mean they "don't work". They will keep working, the reactions will still occur, it's just that the speed of the reaction won't increase any further even if you add more substrate.
Enzymes are not consumed in reactions. They're like workers in a factory, they process the material (substrate) into product, but they themselves are not consumed to become product. So the amount of workers will remain the same over time.
Now, if you have a lot of workers and little material, many of them will just lazy around doing nothing. In this situation, if you add more material, those free workers will get to work, and you produce the product faster.
But, if you keep adding material faster, at some point all the workers will be busy. At that point, even if you pile another mountain of material at the gate every minute, the speed that you produce the product will not increase any further. We refer to this situation as the enzyme is "saturated". Make no mistake, even when it's "saturated", the production is still occurring. And if you stop adding material (substrate), the backlog of substrate you have already added will slowly be processed by the enzyme until all of it becomes product.
So in the end, you'll get your reaction and your product no matter how much enzyme you add. Even if it's just 1 molecule of enzyme, it will get the job done, eventually. The only difference is time, i.e. how long you have to wait until that amount of substrate you added turns into product. We usually refer to this speed as "enzyme unit", or U. 1 U of an enzyme means that if all those enzyme molecules get to work (equivalent to enzyme saturation), they will convert 1 micromole of substrate per minute to product.
So the amount of enzyme you need to use all comes down to how long you prefer to wait. If, for example, you have 300 micromoles of substrate, and you only want to wait 20 minutes for the reaction to end, you will need to add:
Amount of enzyme = 300/20 = 15 (U)
Please understand that this is just a grossly simplified explanation of the most basic. When you get to the actual enzyme speed, there are a bunch of other factors you need to mind, such as the chance of collision between enzyme and substrate molecules (which depends on temperature and dilution, similar to normal chemical reaction), the nature of the enzyme (which determines how stickily it catch the substrate molecule when they collide or whether they'll just bounce off each other, how stickily the product bounds to the enzyme and delays further substrate coming in, whether the enzyme needs to change its structure and therefore requires a recovery time, etc.), how many substrates take part in the reaction, the presence of inhibitor/inducer, etc. It can get complicated super fast and there's a whole field of study for it. If you're interested in it, you can start by learning about Michaelis–Menten kinetics, which is the most fundamental of them all.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
7 answers
What is the current evidence regarding the relationship between telomere shortening and exercise??
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
23 answers
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
effects of ocean sprawl...Continued human population growth and associated development of coasts and offshore waters have led to marine and coastal environments that are increasingly dominated by artificial (engineered) structures, termed “ocean sprawl” (Duarte et al., 2012, Firth et al., 2016a)... Firth, L. B., Knights, A. M., Bridger, D., Evans, A., Mieskowska, N., Moore, P. J., ... & Hawkins, S. J. (2016). Ocean sprawl: challenges and opportunities for biodiversity management in a changing world.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
9 answers
What disciplines, areas of contemporary economic systems, industries, etc. will in the 21st century develop the model of sustainable pro-ecological economic development according to the concept of green economy?
In connection with the progressing global warming and the increase in the risk and frequency of climate disasters, it is necessary to implement pro-ecological reforms as soon as possible into economic processes. First of all, renewable energy sources should be developed, replacing the classic energy based on the burning of minerals. In addition, it is necessary to improve the technology of automation and robotization in the processes of waste segregation, recycling and re-use of various types of raw materials. Also, electromobility, ecological agriculture, zero-energy construction, etc. should be developed.
In recent years ecological innovations have been created mainly in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques, recycling, treatment of polluted water, reclamation of a devastated natural environment, energy-efficient construction, electromobility etc. However, more and more eco-innovations, new technological solutions, technical improvements which is part of sustainable ecological development, is also created in many other fields of science.
In view of the above, are examples of pro-ecological undertakings, technological improvements compatible with sustainable ecological development or ecological innovations that are also created in one of the following or other related fields of science, for example: Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Anthropology Theory, Medicine, Electrical Engineering , Artificial Intelligence, Genetics, Business Administration, Risk Management, Big Data, Business Intelligence, Automation & Robotics, Climatology, Agriculture, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Medical Intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, Ecosystem Analysis, Power Engineering, Construction, Food production, Forest ecology, Biology, Geoscience, Government Programs, Behavioral Sciences, Biodiversity Assessment, Green Architecture, Greenhouse, Waste, Household Products, Information Society, Innovation Management, International Entrepreneurship, Internet Technologies, Knowledge Creation, Bioelectric Energy gy Sources, Business Model Innovation, Cataclysmic Variables, Chromatography, Clean Energy, Cleantech, Climate Prediction, Collaborative Innovation, Commercialization, Computational Intelligence, Computer Science and Engineering, Conservation Biology, Consumer Behavior, Corporate Governance, Creative Economy, Crisis Communication, Cyber Security, Data Analysis, Database Administration, Development Cooperation, Digital Ecosystems, Economic Ecoindicators, Ecosystem Ecology, Energy Industry, Ecological Modeling Ecological Economics, Ecological Indicators, Discovery, Earth Sciences, Earthquake Forecasting and Geocataclysm, Econometric Analysis, Economic Integration, Economics of Innovation, Ecosystem Engineering, Electricity, Electronic Systems, Energetic Materials, Energy Technologies, Environment, Environmental Biodegradation, Flora, Food Consumption Life Sciences, Logistics Management, Materials for Sustainable Energy, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Nanomaterials, New Media Technology, Recycling, Physics of Global Warming, Plant Protection, Predicive Analytics, Production Planning, Project Development, Public Economics, Public Policy, Public Policy, Sociobiology, Space Science, Sustainable Agriculture, Sustainable Development Strategies, Technology Forecasting, Transport Economics, Water Resources, Weather Forecasting, Wildlife Conservation, World Economy, ...?
In view of the above, the current question is: What areas of knowledge will be involved in shaping sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the 21st century?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
In order for the pro-ecological transformation of the traditional brown economy to a sustainable green economy / circular economy to run smoothly, it is necessary to increase the scale of implementing the principles of sustainable development, develop social environmental (ecological) responsibility, carry out pro-environmental reforms, create and implement eco-innovations in economic processes, etc. in various sectors. and economic sectors. In addition, the process of achieving the sustainable development goals should be carried out in the formula of integrated, correlated pro-environmental processes of implementing green business ventures and investment projects implemented in various industries and sectors of the economy. It is necessary to develop pro-environmental state intervention, under which the state should inspire, co-finance, motivate and integrate the implementation of green economic ventures.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
In a study involving 4 variables (species(2x), temperature(2x), nutrients(2x) and light(3x)), 3 by 3 variables, for example, "species", "temperature" and "nutrients" are significant. I end up with 12 post-hoc tables referring to the possible interactions. Now, I would like to show these pieces of information in a scientific paper format and not insert 12 tables in the manuscript. Is there a way to show up these results in a concise way? Is there any biology paper related which exemplifies a similar situation?
Thank you very much for your help.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
Hello,
I am trying to find kinetic information (such as rate of enzyme production etc.) on the expression of taq polymerase in E-Coli after inserting a recombinant plasmid.
Any help would be appreciated
Relevant answer
Answer
You need precision and technique
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
2 answers
.
Relevant answer
Answer
The incorporation of benzimidazoles in the casing gave promising results. Benomyl at the rate of 0.95 g/m2, and carbendazim and thiabendazole at the rate of 0.62 g/m2, were effective in controlling wet bubble disease (Nair and Baker, 1978).
In addition, if no products were applied during casing and a small area showed some traits of wet bubble disease, you can follow this method:
Cover the diseased area to at least 5 cm beyond the edge with a double thickness paper tissue damped in water for easy handling and positioning. In case there is some mushrooms growing beneath the paper, break their connection with the casing layer to inhibit growth.
If the diseased area is wide, better to terminate the crop at the end of the flush and in case you want to continue with another flush, consider avoiding watering.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
7 answers
I have had unheard of success with protein crystallography lately from a super successful protein expression and purification batch.
I have attained a lately reproducible vast amount of crystals of no average size. Is there a way to tell based on appearance which of these crystals should diffract the best?
All these crystals grow from a clear droplet in 12 hours.
What's the most important parameter?
* transparency?
* size?
* how intensely it reflects light? birefringence?
* geometry?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi there, Unfortunately there is absolutely no link between the size and appearance of a crystal and its ability to diffract. Gorgeous crystals may diffract very badly and little dirty bits may result in structure at 0.8A resolution (The opposite may also apply!).
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
Dear Colleagues,
I am new to genes and genotyping and I need help. I am trying to figure our how AA, AG, and GG genotypes map on to A1 for DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A polymorphism(rs1800497) and Val or MET for COMT Val158Metpolymorphism (rs4680). Where can I find this information presented in a way that a gene-naïve person will understand?
Thank you very much in advance,
Monika
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Monika,
For me ensembl.org is the easiest. For example COMT
1. you search for the human gene
2. Open the gene file:
3. Select one of the longest and best annotated transcripts
4. Select cDNA in the left panel
If you don't see the SNPs go to Configure the Page and select Variants. If you prefer, you can visualize the SNPs as well in the gene view.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
Hi there, I have two bar chart figures I want to annotate to show significance, however, I’m unsure how to this correctly.
Figure 1 displays the visits counts (y-axis) of different species (x-axis) at different food types (legend). A chi-square test of association was used to determine the food preferences (food type) and different species.
Figure 2 displays the mean proportion of time vigilant (y-axis) of different species (x-axis). An independent samples kruskal wallis test was used, followed by a pairwise comparison, to determine significance differences in proportion of time vigilance between species.
I’m guessing ’*’ above columns show that they are significant. So would this be more appropriate in figure 1? Using letters, I’m guessing, would be more appropriate for figure 2. as it shows what groups are significantly different from one another. However, should I also use ‘*‘ in figure 2? Additionally, is it appropriate to use different forms of annotation between figures or does the format need to be consistent across figures?
Relevant answer
Answer
But talking about bar chart it means you are talking about frequency (mode) i.e hw many time(s) each observation you are representing occurs. since you have taken it to chi-square test, you can compare both calculated values with the tabulated values to see which one falls into acceptance or rejection region to whether you'll reject or accept at the whatever percentage you are working with.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
10 answers
What do you think about the balance between exploring widely different designs vs. local optimization at different levels of biology (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, anatomy, etc.)? Which levels are more or less modular or plastic?
In the endocrine system, for example, one feels that having tropic hormones (i.e., those controlling the release of other signaling hormones at other glands) may offer a finer and perhaps more robust regulation, compared to a being where all hormones were non-tropic. However, the anatomic location of elements in these networks is not trivial. For example, in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renin is produced in the kidney, and aldosterone eventually exerts its effects in the kidney as well. However, the intermediate step by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mainly occurs in the lungs, which could introduce a delay in the regulation.
Do we have good explanations for the sites of production and action of different hormones in the body? Are there common principles to be learned as optimized by evolution in this respect? Or are happenstances/contingent evolution stronger determinants?
Thank you for sharing your thoughts!
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Hi everyone, I was wondering about the possibilities of performing numerical taxonomy with SPSS software. I would be very thankful to recieve advice!! For now I have been reading about hierarchical clustering, principal component and discriminant function analysis... Help!!
Relevant answer
Answer
There is a book called multivariate analysis where many examples are described. I think it can be helpful for you.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
11 answers
The special Issue "Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers and the Golden Ratio in Physics and Biology"
is intended to be a repository for this question.
Apart from this opportunity to publish new results, I am much interested to have unsuspected answers about this subject.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
12 answers
Each humans reaction sourced by nervous system so can we improve some bad habits or behavior of humans ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Study of neuro-science and medication accordingly help to change the behavior.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
10 answers
There is a theory saying that emotions are controlled by the right side of the brain and logic is controlled by the other side. Is the brain really divided into two sides when it comes to controlling different aspects of human behaviour?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, scientifically its correct.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
8 answers
Pesticides become prime compo in agricultural activities to meet the growing demand of the human population. But indiscriminate usage and mishandling led to two disasters in India such as Bhopal (MIC) and Kasaragood (Endosulfon) tragedy. Was there other disasters which were not reported?
Relevant answer
Answer
Can I quote this information in my research article?
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Hello,
I am not a biology researcher, but I am working in intradisciplinary research and would like to know the answer to this question, which I have not being able to understand.
This questions refers specifically to the coronavirus vaccines being developed functioning on a mRNA mechanism. I would like to know how the body differences the cells that are instructed to construct the spikes (which cells) and how they are biologically signaled to stop (certain proteins or a certain mechanism, so on).
I very much appreciate any input from researches on the field.
Relevant answer
Answer
Potentially every cell into which the m-RNA penetrates can produce coronavirus spike protein of the kind of virus of origin. Theoretically all cells of the body can be programmed to synthesize just virus proteins. This is potentially fatal for the funktion of the organs.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
1 answer
Is any way or method to seal agarose pad or channels fabricated agarose gel pad to glass slides as like we do plasma bonding with PDMS to glass slides?.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good question
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
9 answers
What we see outside and what is detectable is generally a macro universe but there is so many undetectable micro universe ....what is that.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks a lot, dear all professors for your view.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
10 answers
We all know the role of microbes its miniature of the miracle how it can be , used in revolutionizing science in various fields.
Relevant answer
Answer
Microbes function to maintain soil quality, plant growth, yield, and plant health. Microbes can fix atmospheric nitrogen, decompose organic wastes and residues, detoxify soil invaded with chemicals, suppress plant diseases and soilborne pathogens, enhance nutrient cycling, and produce bioactive compounds such as vitamins, hormones, and enzymes that stimulate plant growth.
The use of bio-inputs such as biofertilizers, biopesticides, and biodegraders comprising of beneficial microbes keeps our biogeochemical cycles alive by acting as miniature factories inside the soil and provides a continuous supply of nutrients as well as plant protection metabolites when required.
Panpatte, D. G., Jhala, Y. K., Shelat, H. N., & Vyas, R. V. (Eds.). (2018). Microorganisms for Green Revolution: Volume 2: Microbes for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem (Vol. 7). Springer.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Many time during meditation whole body feels the flow of electricity like the thing is it bio electricity or something else why this occurs but after that generally, I felt so miracle experience....how and what is this...
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks a lot, dear Abeer Haq for your wonderful answer.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Could the presence of ligand on a catalyst surface reduced the reactivity of its surface? If yes/no, please explain why?
Relevant answer
Answer
this depends on which type of ligand used
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
7 answers
In my personal experience I have find the higher rate of sprouting when fresh cow dung is applied on the top side of cutting what might be its reason.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks a lot, dear professor Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh for your nice answer
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
19 answers
Do you think the plant can communicate with each other, what is the level of feeling in plants?
Relevant answer
Answer
The study reveals that plants communicate to each other through their roots.
Thanks!
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
51 answers
Hi,
we decided to go back to our origins and relaunched the Parrot Researchers Group. The mission of the Parrot Researchers Group (PRG; formerly known also as Working Group Psittaciformes or as Research Coordination Committee on Parrots) group is to establish and promote research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies to the parrots of the world. To achieve this, the PRG
1) Promotes parrot research,
2) Establishes research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies,
3) Identifies and addresses barriers to effective research and conservation of parrots (Psittaciformes).
The PRG is characterised by a regional approach, being organised in four regions (African, Australasian, Neotropical, and Indo-Malayan), a Wild Parrot Veterinary Section, and a Secretary Office that coordinates joint work.
You can read more about our specific objectives in our homepage:
or in the attachment.
We (405 members to date) are currently looking for more researchers to join the group. If you are interested, please, get in touch with me or any of the regional coordinators.
Any questions?
Looking forward to work together.
All the best, JUAN
Dr. Juan F. Masello
Justus Liebig University Giessen
Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics
Personal information, projects and publications
Burrowing Parrots & behavioural ecology
Penguins & energy landscapes
Prions & evolution
The Alliance of World Scientists
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, thank you for your message. I've just sent you instructions per e-mil. Please, let me know any questions. Looking forward! Cheers, JUAN
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
Even if behavior was "embodied", wouldn't the brain notice? YES, of course: then the BRAIN would become the better "vehicle" for remembering, thinking, and "time travel" (i.e. prospective memory) -- possible (and possibly trivial) sensori-motor components notwithstanding. [ I am really quite tired of the "embodied" conceptualizations (which have yet to be shown as non-fictions *). See my writings. No one has argued against the views/approaches (content) in these writings NOR accepted/liked/or adopted them (now 1+ years (or 5+ years, depending how you look at it) and counting). ]
* Footnote: All this nonsense is ALL because NO PSYCHOLOGY OUTLOOK (other than my own) "believes in" anything psychological, innately guided, and emerging with ontogeny (which is not tenable). (The idea that learning is literally nearly always "the same" (outside of clearly always being associative in nature) is preposterous (think of a two -year-old and an adolescent -- and imagine any systematic and universal instruction you credibly might posit). P.S. Relatedly : "Culture" does NOT directly impinge on the individual -- the actual Subject and ultimate, but absolutely necessary, unit of analysis &/or explanation (for Biology or for Science). All executive or "meta" processes can NOT be properly shown to be anything but homunculi.)
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gerry Leisman
NONE of what you say is contrary to what I say. I don't, for my most reasonable position, have to believe there are no connections in/to the greater body, JUST THAT THEY ARE LIKELY TRIVIAL AND NOT ALONE (there are plenty of reasons to believe there are the most significant representations in the brain). Neuroscience as a big help to psychology is unlikely (brain patterns are more sophisticated than we can make sense of -- they are LIKELY as sophisticated AS THE NUANCES OF BEHAVIOR PATTERNS THEMSELVES; and, to wit, I have written essays on this and have most-reasonably argued that you must know the BEHAVIOR __PATTERNS__ very well to know what the more obscure brain indicators may refer to -- and DO THIS for the most part, NOT the other way around.)
Sadly all these BIG BELIEFS in/of embodying "representation" in sensori-motor ways is just because you do not have a belief/presumption/assumption structure to believe what is VERY likely, biologically: THAT THERE ARE SUBTLE, BUT IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR SHIFTS WITH ONTOGENY -- these likely BASIC perceptual shifts, in a significant sense originating FROM THE ORGANISM ITSELF in appropriate environments. You are not stage theorists, which essentially means you cannot see behavior __PATTERNS__ (a very rare term, and when used : not correctly) or anything else of the TRUE BIOLOGICAL NATURE OF BEHAVIOR __PATTERNS__ AND PATTERNINGS OF patterns. And, as you are thus separated from the biology of BEHAVIOR ("just behavior", BEHAVIOR PER SE,) you are separated (needlessly) from science (strict empiricism) itself.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
10 answers
Solving the protein structure prediction problem by AlphaFold2(AF2) from sequence seems at its core a game-changing breakthrough. Major areas of biology and biophysics will thrive and others may become diminished or even obsolete.
Will AF2 hurt or benefit experimental methods for determination of protein structure? Structures of large macromolecular machines should be enabled by having accurate computational structures for subunits and components. X-ray structure value may become more specialized. One thing that seems likely is that the already great value of sequence data (which is doubling every 8 months) is likely to become far greater by being more directly connected to spatial information. At its core solving the protein folding problem will enhance sequence impact and thereby increase the overall the pace of biology and biophysical advances by improving the ability of structural biology to better harness the flood of sequence data. How much will medical areas such as cancer biology and cancer drug discovery benefit? How about research areas such as protein design? What areas are likely to be most powerfully advanced and which most negatively impacted? What do you think?
How should senior and early stage researchers position themselves to ride the wave of growing positive impacts and reduce research wipeouts when this new mega-wave adds constructively or destructively with current research waves of systems biology and single molecule and single cell advances? What should we change in training for graduate students and fellows to insure they are correctly positioned for science with reliable protein structure prediction?
Relevant answer
Answer
John,
You have asked an interesting question. For a senior member of structural biology community it shows the yearning for practical solutions as well as naivety of the real difficulties in even defining the problem. The protein folding problem is an ill-defined and most likely unsolvable problem in its classic sense of axiomatic reductionist sciences. If the old Anfinsen view was true about the minimum of global free energy there never would be life on Earth or anywhere else. The new paradigm that I partially formulated is that every protein (as a matter of fact every macromolecule of life) has its own specific recipe how to combine the structural with dynamical features to accomplish the desired function (PNAS 106(2009)10505). It means that there is a unique proportion of conditionally stable structure to conditionally unstable elements to perform given function. This ill defined condition is not solvable by classic axioms but it just might be partially solvable by fuzzy methods such as AI. Why AI is so good? Because the protein folding problem is a practical not a theoretical problem. Depending on conditions and their possible changes the protein suppose to perform a certain function. This is what physics call "self organized criticality". This is far from equivalency of having a certain structure nor a possible unique binding site nor anything that remotely can be called a solution. AI just simply captures better the set of heuristic rules than other methods particularly dynamical coupling with solvent. There are millions of examples to support this view. If anybody wants to engage I will be happy to, but not now. There is no place here to mention even a single one.
So the only hope is that we found an effective heuristic tool that gives us better approximation to reality. To be properly tested the method needs to be exposed to finding bordering cases when it breaks down. What conditions produce divergencies. What percentages of certain structures are folded and are not. For instance only around 30% of genomes of higher eukaryotes are properly folded. Around 30% is conditionally folded (on the target, in the particular compartment) since the misfolding diseases. And finally around 30% is almost never folded with residual presence of folding nuclei that precipitate the function. So all these classes of proteins must be tested against this new AI approach to see when the rules break down and how to enhance them.
Therefore, it is not a breakthrough that John is so excited about. But it is definitely progress. But, I would not see anytime in the future, abolishing or significant diminished importance of any particular field of science, in exactly the same way as radio did not get extinct by TV.
Bog
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
5 answers
Hello
I am testing different groups of T-cells (1,2,3 and 4) for the level of CD69 upregulation after stimulation with a molecule at different concentrations 1,2,3 and 4, see the attached plot. If I want to see if there is a significant difference in CD69 expression between the different T-cells should I do one-way anova at each concentration? or two-way anova would be enough?
Many thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Neither.
You should model the (logit!) of %CD69 depending on concentration and on the group of T cells. Thecnically, this is a two-factorial model with a continuous predictor (concentration), a categorical predictor (group of T cells) and their interaction.
It might be ok to use the logit-transformed %CD69 values, however, slightl more appropriate would be a quasi-binomial model or a beta-model (they use the %CD69 values as they are but a logit-link to model the expectation).
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
38 answers
I am not sure if any one study on this topic. It has been observed in certain cases that success-full researchers have poor academic record. These are exceptions, I am interested to know any study on this topic. Please also cite examples that shows negative or positive examples. Ideally there should be high positive correlation, if it is not than why?
I mean if person got good grade/marks or rank at school/university level will be a grate scientist. For example if topper of JEE (top exam in India for getting admission in engineering college) join research, he/she will be best scientist in the world.
Relevant answer
Answer
From my long experience of teaching, the researchers who have rich researching CV usually have poor teaching records and vice versa. That is especially true for the universities that haven't a sufficient researching budget. The reason behind that is that researching needs more time at the expense of teaching.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
5 answers
How can I calculate and report degrees of freedom for repeated mesure ANOVA?
I have 48 observations N=48 and 2 factors of 3(P) and 8(LA) levels.
I calculate degrees of freedom as follows:
dF P = a-1= 2
df LA = b-1= 7
df LA*P =(a-1)(b-1)= 14
Error dF P = (a-1) (N-1) = 94
Error dF LA = (b-1) (N-1) = 329
Error dF P*LA = (a-1)(b-1)(N-1) = 658
My JASP analysis gave me these results:
Within Subjects Effects
Cases Sum of Squares df Mean Square F p η²
P 1.927 2 0.964 33.9 < .001 0.120
P*LA 8.450 14 0.604 21.2 < .001 0.528
Residuals 0.454 16 0.028
Can I write P : F(2,14)= 33.9
and P*LA: F(14, 658) =21.2 ???
Or is it P: F(2, 16)=33.9
P*LA: F(14, 16) =21.2 ???
Thanks to anyone who would like to answer
Relevant answer
Answer
Following
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
7 answers
A patient with desminopathy (mutation Thr341Pro DES in a heterozygous state) with the progression of the disease has a decrease in taste and smell, immunosuppression, and an increase in IgA in the blood.
Oddly enough, but all this is characteristic of infections, including viral ones. For example, it is known that if the hepatitis C virus is not treated, then death will occur in 20 years.
In the identified case of late onset desminopathy, muscle weakness manifests itself at the age of 30, and death occurs 20 years after the onset of the disease.
Could the desmin mutation in myofibrillar myopathy be caused by an infection?
Perhaps the infection contributes to the progression of desminopathy?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Massimo Zipoli, thank you very much for your reply! As you know, desmin is expressed in all types of muscle cells (skeletal, smooth, cardiac muscles, diaphragm), as well as in tumor cells.
In this family with desminopathy, we identified a large number of cancers (n = 6): bladder (2 cases in men), prostate, skin, uterus, rectum (article in the appendix). For example, it is known that dysfunction and pathological changes in the smooth muscles of the bladder are associated with the overexpression of desmin.
Thus, the likelihood of infecting cells with the mutation is quite high.
Article
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
22 answers
I would love to hear what people have come across in relation to language accessibility in publications. Ideally the journal focuses on Entomology and/or biodiversity, but I am also just curious on a broader scale if language friendly journals exist.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Erin Krichilsky I'm just wondering why you are looking for "a journal that accepts publications in two languages or at least is bilingual friendly". What is it good for to publish in different languages? We used to publish our research papers in German back in the 1970's and 1980's, but then we realized that the papers were not read by many researchers abroad. Then we switched to English to make sure that our papers are read worldwide (and eventually cited).
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
I am testing the impedance of a material that will be used for ECoG electrodes.
I was told to test it at a frequency range from 1 Hz - 100 kHz but why is this range used? I wasnt able to find a satisfactory answer.
Which impedance values are good for recording and why? Is there a range ?
Kind regards
Relevant answer
Answer
Lester Viray can you help him professor
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
3 answers
Hello,
I had a severely neglected Paraplecta parva (Blattodea species) culture here lying around and decided to put the soil with the Blattodea species in a formicarium of mine and this was when I recognized these small, orange-brownish mites. In worry they could be parasitic I instantly put a menthol impregnated paper on the soil to to possibly kill all mites. Oh and the mites currently don‘t sit on the roaches, they sit in and on top of the soil, but I need to be sure they aren’t opportunistic parasites.
I would be very grateful if anyone at least could identify the genus of the mite.
Bet regards,
André
Relevant answer
I think it is a parasitic acari (scientific name: Oribatida), a suborder of animals that follows the order Arachnids.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
16 answers
I am working with tuta abusoluta, testing eficcacy of several pesticides. My challange is on finding the artificial diet for the insects. What type of artificial diet which can be used to rear Tuta absoluta?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think you do not need to rear this insect on the artificial diet. This insect pest can be reared well on healthy tomato plants (2-3 weeks old) using 50 x 50 x 50 cages with replacing the plants every week or 10 days.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
6 answers
I am doing my thesis and would like to extract triglycerides from Olives or Olive Oil. I will be analysing the amount of triglycerides that are present in the olives or Olive Oil I will be testing. I would also like to extract them so that I may convert them to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters for biofuel. Does anyone know and/or have any papers that I may use? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Stages of olive oil production
1 Picking: farmers start harvesting olives in early autumn
2 Washing: When the olive fruits reach the press, they are emptied into large jars to be washed.
The mashing of the olives is transferred to mash in special jars, by means of sharp metal blades, to form a smooth paste that is transported through metal tubes to the next stage.
3 Pressing: The olive dough is transferred to special automatic metal presses to press it and extract the oil from it, and at this stage the dough is pressed several times to extract the largest amount of virgin oil. Then the oil is transported in tubes to special jars in preparation for the next stages.
4 Filtering: The oil is transferred at this stage to large jars containing huge filters to purify it from sediments with what is known as turbid oil (tarotb), where hot water is added to it so that the pure oil is completely separated from the sediments in it, then it is transferred to clean jars to be transferred to The next stage.
5 Filling: At this stage, the oil is filled into clean metal or plastic containers, and the oil at this stage has a pure color and a pungent taste.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
121 answers
Scientific Reports charges USD 1,790 to publish an article.
Since 24 March 2015, biology papers submitted to the journal could be fast-tracked (that is, a review in around 3 weeks) with an additional payment of USD 750 (at that time).
It is clear that commercial interests are important.
Might one ask if this is a predatory journal?
Relevant answer
Answer
I have serious doubts about this journal's impact factor and H-Index values.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
6 answers
I have noted dramatically change in color on the body of some marine fishes. For example, I saw a dramatically change from a "intense-yellow" color to "brown" color (normal color), just in one second. Is not a gradual change of color, is very quickly, similar like an octopuses. How could be explained this color change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Body coloration in many poikilothermic animals is plastic and can be adjusted at the individual level. Particularly in fish, this rapid change is called physiological color change and refers to synchronous movement of pigment organelles within pigmented cells in the skin called chromatophores (black melanophores containing melanin, yellow xantophores containing pteridine, red erythrophores containing carotenoids, and the more rare blue cyanophores containing an unknown cyan biochrome), as well as in changes in angles of light reflecting crystals in iridophores and leucophores . When aggregating the dark melanosomes of the melanophores, the skin not only becomes pale but also more transparent. Increased body transparency can also aid background matching.
The advantage of rapid color change is obvious, because it allows rapid adjustments and flexibility at the individual level depending of the situation. It is used for background matching as well as for communication and sexual display . Studies on pipefish have shown that the color ornaments of the females are shut off if a predator enters the mating area, clearly indicating the advantage of an adjustable body appearance and the risk of a colorful display .
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
2 answers
I found a species of Coniopterygidae preying on eggs and nymphs of Aleurothrixus floccosus in a lemon tree. I have followed its biology and have pictures of eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. With my thanks in advance, any help is welcome.
Luis
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Dmitry! I will contact them. Regards. Luis
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
4 answers
I decided to edit this question to show the right/ correct things and erase those clearly wrong in order to avoid confusion.
I have been reading De Cook 2009 paper Biology and behaviour of European Lampyrids (where is said the female light pattern consists a normal looking adult lampyrid-like light organ in ventral segments V and VI [...], and depending on the individual or species an additional number of 4 to 12 smaller lateral light spots in the abdominal segments that are “inherited” from the larval stages) but I didn't find anything related to dorsal glow spots also in thoracic segments of the female Lamprohiza mulsantii. But in a private mesage he told me there are glow spots also in thoracic segments. It's also in the literature: Olivier 1884 (il existe en outre un point d’un blanc de cire à chaque côté des segments supérieurs de l’abdomen, le long des bords latéraux, et un autre à la base de chacune des élytres), Bourgeois 1894 (bandes lumineuses sur les 5e et 6e arceaux ventraux et foyers lumineux sur la base des élytres et sur les cotés des arceaux dorsaux) and Bougnion 1929 (including a drawing), for instance. As Raphaël de Cock told me, the thoracic spots origin is the metanotum (and not the mesonotum as I stated previously).
I draw this echeme of the dorsal segments and made an interpretation of three pictures of different females (with the "glow spots formula"). The green circles are the more common glow spots; the yellow ones are the rare ones.
(The numbered female is an own picture; the collage of two pictures is from Xevi Béjar)
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Martin, I'll look them if I found again a living female again, as the females kept in ethanol loose any trace of where it was the glow spot.
  • asked a question related to Biology
Question
12 answers
Dr. Caleb Bryce and I have organized a canine science symposium for the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology (SICB) meeting January 3-7th, 2021 in Washington DC (http://www.sicb.org/meetings/). Attached you may find a poster with a list of the speakers for our symposium which will be held January 7th, 2021.
Abstracts will be due late August to early September 2020. You do not have to be a SICB member to attend this meeting, and you can also register to attend for a single day.
If you cannot attend part or the whole meeting, may I ask that you help us spread the word about it by forwarding this information and poster to potentially interested parties?
Our hope is that dogs take over SICB 2021, hopefully with your help!
Please do let me know if you have any questions.
Relevant answer
Answer