Science topics: Engineering
Science topic

Engineering - Science topic

This research group is created with an intention of making an interaction among the research scholars, professors, scientists, engineers & technologists working in the field of Engineering, so that today’s novel ideas can become reality of tomorrow and these all can be implemented in a more constructive manner for the welfare of whole mankind
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(Science, Technology,Engineering and Maths)
Girls in Engineering ,Maths and Science.
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Excellent information shared..
Thank you Sir
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The field of Computing has rich history of genius, innovation and cutting-edge technologies. What are the greatest scholastic works in the field of Computer Science and Engineering today and what impact they made on academia and industry?
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In my view, Statistical softwares.... particularly R
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Curious about what scholarship means to scholars from different countries.
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In México (possibly elsewhre it might be similar), different kinds of scholarships exist; for instance, for students and for scholars.
Mrs. Ofelia Valdés answered concerning student ones. Institutional (the university or research center where ones works), and national scholarships are the two most representative ones offered for professors. The previous have rankings (with corresponding amounts) are based in certain merits.
Nevertheless, from my personal point of view, México rewarding policy is not at its best since it mostly focuses in paper number and JCR journal impact; practically ignoring technological developments and applied science impacts, which are more important for a country as ours.
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In my filed of Goetchnical Engineering, I would name Karl Terzaghi as the founding father of modern soil mechanics. Who would you name in your filed?
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In the field of Physics: Richard Feynman.
While his "Lectures on Physics" (see http://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu ) are not intended for novices, they are famous for his way to approach the topics.
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The Engineer's Point of View .
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There are basically 2 types. One used aluminum oxide crystals to "blast away" the stratum corneum, but many aestheticians and clients don't like the "sand" blowing all over so they also make "crystal free" units that use an industrial diamond encrusted tip for the exfoliation.
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I could not find the file with the Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Maritime Technology and Engineering (MARTECH2016).
I would be very grateful if somebody send me a copy privately.
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Dear friend, please check your inbox.
Best,
TC Huynh
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Topic for a PhD thesis in the field of wastewater treatment modelling.
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Hello Abdeljalil,
Finding a research topic, and identifying a specfic problem are critical steps in the launch of a research. Both can be determined by reading relevant publications to your major topic. These publications should be carefully selected to build a sufficient background accompanied with awareness of the current problems. You may be interested to use the attached flowcharts.
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Please suggest me how to calculate stress accumulation and strain using gps displacements for understanding the occurrence of failure (earthquakes).....
Thank you
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The simple answer to get to strain from displacements is to find the deformation matrix that connects initial to final positions. If you are working in 3D that would be a 3D tensor. If you could assume plane strain the matrix would be simpler. Basically the displacements would be longitudinal and angular and you could go about quantifying those depending on your problem. If your data consist of GPS displacements, it is the longitudinal strain (typically N and E) that is significant and you can look at "baselines" that shorten or extend in the direction that is most important to you. As Stress and Strain tensors are connected through the Rheology tensor, you would need to have information about the rheology of the deforming material to be able to go from strain to stress (as Martijn correctly pointed out above). If the deformation is near surface then elastico-frictional laws typically apply. Other wise you could opt for quasi-plastic or viscoelastic rheologies.
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-Our protein from other species does what we expected in E.coli.
-The function is predicted from the blastp search. We found it has an extra domain so I wonder is it reasonable to study a protein from other species in E.coli?
-My concern is that the domain may act differently in the original species. What we found in E.coli may not be true in its native host.
-Our goal is to engineer the protein, however, other concerns that we should not engineer the protein if we don't know its function.
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Thank you for you insight, Kyle. I need to discuss with my adviser and hopefully everything goes well.
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I have submitted a manuscript to a reputed journal. After 2 months of peer review process, the response was “moderate revision has been requested” and they told me that the new version is required within 1 month.
After making the necessary adjustments, I have resubmitted the revised manuscript back on the 14th of October 2017. On the 21st of October the status changed from “with editor” to “under review”. To date (16th December) the status is “under review”.
In fact, I had made some readings about late reviews, I found that reviews are normally due 14 days after the invitation is accepted by the reviewer.
Should I worry about manuscript rejection?
Thanks in advance for your help
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I feel that there is no fear about rejection if you have complied with all the issues raised by the reviewer or have provided satisfactory explanation to contradict the comments.
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I am working on Placement prediction using educational data mining techniques. looking for test corpus to test result.
primary domain preferred: Engineering students corpus.
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Hello dear researchers!
I need your suggestion regarding Book of Neural Network for Control Engineers in which control techniques of neural networking are present.
Regard
SAFEER ULLAH
PhD Student
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i suggest these books >
( Neural Network Control of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems )
Jagannathan Sarangapani‏
&
( High-Level Feedback Control with Neural Networks )
Young Ho Kim‏،Frank L. Lewis‏
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I'm a Marine Engineer and Researcher. And I am interested in ROPAX Design and Analysis. Please, I would to join this project? to share ideas.
Thanks,
Chuku Azubuike John
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For analysis any design task could be useful the analysis and synthesis metodology described in the work Analysis and synthesis of engineering systems that you could download from my contributions in my researhgate profile
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Both, the academic applied research and the industry applied research have been evolving side by side for many years. However, there still are number of differences with regards to their outcome assessment measures. What is the outcome assessment metrics that could be use as a template for both academia and industry?
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As an Public Health Practitioner, I am not much aware about outcome matrix for computer and engeeneering scince. However, Publications ( Journal?), finacial support ( who and why?) and the research institute and leading figure are also important in my view.
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Two plastic tubing are to be connected and glued in perpendicular for fluid flow. Can you suggest any tests that can be done to detect any leakage at the joint?
See attached photo.
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An efficient way to detect leaks is to fill the tubes with a tracer gas at the service pressure to analyze the air around the conection with a detector adapted to this gas. The reversse may also be done, putting the connection in a tight box filled with a tracer gas and analyze the gaz in the tube.
Possible tracer gases and detectors are
light hydrocarbons (methane ethane, etc.) and flame ionisation detector
halogenated gases with electron capture detector
CO2 or water vapour and infrared detectors
An obvious method to detect important leakages may also be usefull: fill the tube with air under pressure and put the connection under water. Bubles will appear at importantn leakages.
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The research work carried out by university students is very important in their training.
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My model in construction engineering is to team an undergraduate research assistant with a graduate research assistant and I find thier work to be excellent. We've even had a couple that were able to publish thier results in top tier journals. The best advantage from my perspective is about 10% decide to stay and do postgraduate work, giving me a pool of new RAs that are already trained.
Cheers
DG
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Hello everyone,
According to Steven W. Smith, in his book: The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing, when designing a digital filter, "Good performance in the time domain results in poor performance in the frequency domain, and vice versa", and one needs to find a good trade-off for one's needs; and from what I understood, bad performance in the time domain means that the signal's waveform will be altered, meaning it will be somehow distorted after going through the filter. Additionally, the filter's step response is of the most importance when it comes to achieving good performance in the time domain. http://www.dspguide.com/CH14.PDF
So, after I designed two filters with matlab that aim to rid a signal from the electromagnetic interference (lowpass), and the DC component (highpass), and thinking that linear phase filters preserve the shape of the signal because all frequency components are shifted equally, so I went with the FIR filter option, and by using the function fircls1 that allows for defining the ripple levels in the passband and stopband, with the former being the concern for preserving the amplitude levels of the different frequency components, I thought I am getting the best possible "time domain" response, and the shape of the waveform in the time domain is as intact as could possibly be, moreover, I used an adequate number of points in the filter kernal to get the roll-off I desired, and after all that I came across that phrase in the first paragraph, this time I paid more attention and said let's have a look at the step response of the filter. Before I was solely concerned about the frequency response, ripple and stopband attenuation, etc.
I am attaching the step responses of my lowpass filter (left) and highpass (filter) right, and I would like to understand, what did I do wrong? I have looked at the filtered signal and it looks good, it is delayed considerably, and I know FIR filters requires longer execution time, but I am working on it offline, as in not in real-time, and I think I optimized the frequency response, as I mentioned, pretty much, so if that phrase means what I think it means, then the signal is not preserved and its waveform is some how distorted, and I cannot have that for the intended application, so could some one please help me make sense of these seemingly contradictory understandings. Thank you very much!
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Dear Colleagues,
This question is a good one.
The digital filters are classified int FIR and IIR. The FIR filters gas zeros only in z-domain and if they are symmetrical meaning that the filter coefficient have even symmetry around their median the filter will be phase linear. If the filter is phase linear, it will preserve the integrity of the waveform meaning that all the frequency component of the waveform will be delayed by the same amount. This is required to avoid phase distortion of the signals in instrumentation and communications. So, such types of filters results by default in a linear phase response.
The infinite impulse response filters contains in addition to zeros , poles in the z-domian and they normally designed to have a standard filter form function such as Butterworth, Chebychev, Elleptic or Bessel function.
All filter types introduce nonlinear phase distortion except the maximally flat group delay filter, the Bessel filter. So, if you seek to build IIR filters having the lowest phase distortion, you have to mimic the Bessel filter function.
Both types of filter, the symmetrical FIR and Bessel IIR will need more hard ware to get the same attenuation in the stop band with the IIR filter have less hardware.
The best way to test the phase linearity is to determine the phase frequency response of the filter Phi(f) of the frequency response H(f)
Also, the best way to see the effectiveness of the filter is to filter we measure its amplitude frequency response magnitude of H(f).
This is accomplishes by input sinewave input at the filter with constant amplitude and measure the output amplitude and phase. This can be repeated foe all the frequency range of the filter.
One advice is that the signals in time domain are abstract and hard to interpret them.
Best wishes
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does any one have the following article
from Ethnography to Items: A Mixed Methods Approach to Developing a Survey to Examine Graduate Engineering Student Retention
Erin Crede, Maura Borrego
  • Mechanical Engineering
plz share it
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Hello Rokhsareh ghorbani moghaddam ,
In order for the simulation to be credible, it is good to introduce the different properties of the aswalt at the three chosen temperatures such as (hardness, coefficient of friction, adhesion, etc.). The simulation must be done on a case-by-case basis.
Wishing for success.
Emil Yankov
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In the literature and in the RG site pages, the “kinetic model” term sometimes occurs. Using it, authors of laboratory studies would like to let riders know beforehand that they don’t state that this model describes the real mechanism but only propose the model as if capable of predicting the reaction rate under some conditions.
However, on the one hand, it is a question whether the irresponsible proposal of a mechanism is useful for the catalytic science and, on the other hand, maybe, it would be more useful to have an experimental unit real tube filled with a catalyst or an experimental shelf with a catalyst at the chemical plant and to determine the map of the catalyst productivity under different ambient conditions with no models.
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Dear Victor,
To begin with, generally about kinetic equations - as I understand it. The kinetic equation usually takes the form of a power monomial or binomial (homogeneous system) or a hyperbolic function (heterogeneous systems). The form of the equation is determined on the basis of experiments by the differential or integral method using the assumed norm (objective function) in form of RMS, average relative error etc. which we minimize. The effects of temperature, influence of initial substrate concentrations and, possibly, influence of concentrations of selected products (inhibiting effects of products) are taken into account in the studies. In case of reaction A ==> ... we investigate the effect of initial concentration of A, and in case of reaction A + B ==> ....... we will perform experiments at least for several molar ratios B / A. The most common mistake made here is to conduct the experiment for one molar ratio. For example 2: 1 and then the conclusion - the second order reaction with respect to A and B or 20: 1 and then the conclusion - the first reaction order with respect A. This may be, but it does not have to be.
Nothig mixed. I consistently use the term kinetic equation - as a result of kinetic studies (macrokinetic). But what you call the kinetic model, I call the mathematical model of the process. Remember, however, that 30 years ago, the term model and modeling was rarely used.
Besides, the kinetic equation is derived from the experiment, so, of courese, it can be called an empirical equation.
Regards,
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Describe the (4) characteristic of Project Management different form other courses we work in Science & Engineering,Social Work and Arts in terms of Teaching and Learning,with and Example?
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What are the four Characteristic of Project Management?
The 4 characteristics of Project Management include:
  1. managing somethings between the start & end i.e. each project has its start & end dates - no perpetual or ongoing forever (other domains like science, engineering, social work & arts are ongoing).
  2. project management is both science & arts e.g. timeline & cost accuracy, leadership, teamwork, soft-skills etc., not either one (self explanatory for other domains)
  3. project management is touching these triple constraints all the time: timeliness, costliness, scope completeness (other domains might or might not touch all at the same time).
  4. project management is the bridge between design / plan & actual deliverable - other domains like science, engineering, social work & arts can't reach from concept / ideation to experimental outcome / actual deliverable without certain project management approach.
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The 3D Printing is a new submerged technology in the industrial world, and since that the materials used for have the determinal parameter for the success of such technology, we have to take a closer look (as an engineer in material science and engineering) in resoleving such issues.
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Hi Abdessamad,
The 3D printing of metallic alloys can be selective laser melting or directed energy deposition. The material issues may include aspects of limited powder type, of complex microstructure due to lacking sufficient cooling rate, and of appearing dislocations and cracks.
Hopefully the above helps.
Huilong
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Dears freinds, please confirm me that the journal " International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (IJSER) - (ISSN 2229-5518)" is indexed Thomson Reuters? and where i can verify this? Thanks
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From the list of Thomson Reuters list of Journal database.
One analysis is there. That is most likely called Clavate.
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The deep study and knowledge of the subject of Descriptive Geometry, with its different denominations, whether Representation Systems, Graphic Expression in Engineering or Architectonics, Graphic Engineering, .. is fundamental to obtain a suitable base to study any technical career. But, What new resources could be proposed to update the didactic method of the subject of Descriptive Geometry to the present times?
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Dear Juan Carlos Gómez Vargas,
In my opinion, as a contemporary resources, you can use some Geometry software products, like GeoGebra (https://www.geogebra.org/home) for example. It is dynamic mathematics software, available in many languages and freely available for non-commercial users, and for all levels of education. GeoGebra brings together geometry, algebra, spreadsheets, graphing, statistics, calculus, etc.
Regards,
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I'm running orthopaedic models in abaqus and trying to determine which element different coordinate points are in.
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You can choose the following way to view the elements:
In the tool menu: Choose Tools/Query/Element or point to see the which if the point is in the element.
You have to retrieve the closest elements and its nodes, and to perform a computation to see if it is inside.
The computation is "in convex hull" or "out convex hull" algorithm. This algorithm can be found in the matlab.
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I want to start a philosophical discussion and ethical debate on the reasoning behind why humanity should and must become a multi-planet species.
  • What do you think is the most profound and captivating reason(s) that you have to justify SpaceX and Elon Musk's goal of making humanity a multi-planetary species?
Elon said during the 68th Annual ISC on September 29th 2017:
"I think fundamentally the future is vastly more exciting and interesting if we're a spacefaring civilization and a multi-planet species than if we are not. You want to be inspired by things. You want to wake up in the morning and think the future is going to be great."
I agree with him here, but I think there is something more profound and captivating that must be addressed with regards to becoming a species that lives on more than just one planetary body. Other questions we may want to consider to help us reach this answer include:
  • What are the ethical considerations we must address before colonizing other worlds?
  • Do humans really deserve another planet to potentially ruin, or even sustainably terraform, if we cannot even figure out how to sustainably balance our own home world?
  • One might ask why doesn't Elon use his genius to create new technologies that will advance the human race by solving some of the Earth's worst problems?
  • Has he simply given up on this planet and does he therefore want a clean slate to build up from?
  • Does Elon think that technological advancements resulting from the drive to become a spacefaring civilization (i.e. propellant production via. CO2 sequestration powered by 100% solar energy systems) will eventually rebound to help the Earth?
  • Must we start colonizing Mars now (i.e. beginning in the year 2022) like Elon's timeline suggests? Potentially, if we wait too long, technologies to reverse climate change on Earth may not have advanced enough without the excitement of being spacefaring...
Lets see what everyone thinks about this, and let's keep it civilized in here. Try and get real profound!
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If i may add my 5 cents to this:
  • What do you think is the most profound and captivating reason(s) that you have to justify SpaceX and Elon Musk's goal of making humanity a multi-planetary species?
--> Depends how you want to see Elon Musk: as the visionary who wants humanity to thrive and improve? Or just as the one who seeks fame and fortune for being the first in doing things?
In my humble opinion, humanity has yet to reach a level of mindset to overcome cultural and religious differences. We might have satellites and smart phones, but in our thinking we still behave like cave-men.
For example, the Americans, when setting foot on the Moon, put an American flag there. Not one showing Earth. How would it be on Mars, when Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Americans set foot there? Whom will it belong to? For sure not the entire humanity, so we would just bring all of our archaic thinking into a new world. All our problems and issues, and soon the new planet will suffer all the same problems as we have on Earth.
As long as we do not manage to live as one humanity on one planet (i.e. having a global government), there is no point in making humanity multi-planetary.
  • What are the ethical considerations we must address before colonizing other worlds?
--> As mentioned above: if you want to colonise something, who does it belong to? Is there indigenous life (whether intelligent or not)? Or is it a barren rock?
Now given the barren rock case: Who does it belong to? Imagine it has a huge amount of rare minerals on it. Is it "whoever finds it can keep it"? In the outer space treaty from the 1960s, they addressed this topic, saying that space belongs to all humanity, yet not all nations have signed this and yet when it comes to mining/farming/inhabiting these space environments, how is that regulated? And if violated, who prosecutes the violators?
There is a huge legal issue in regards to occupying space environments.
Now given the planet is not a barren rock, but an obviously inhabited planet: Now we can either develop yourselves as species and not touch the ecosystems of these planets, leaving them pristine for the indigenous life. Or we can act in the human way and do the same mistakes as we did in the past over and over again and just go there, exploit and trash the planet until its depletion.
The most difficult and realistic case is actually the case of Mars:
Why is Mars so interesting? Because in its past it was very similar to Earth, it had a denser atmosphere, a magnetic field, volcanism, starting plate tectonics, liquid water and all chemical ingredients for forming life. Mars might have gone through a similar evolution as Earth, forming microbial life, or maybe even be the origin of terrestrial life, as interplanetary transportation of rocks after impact events is proven to occur. Now, Mars is the perfect (and maybe only) place to actually study how life on Earth could develop and if life could develop on other planets as well, if life is unique or if it appears quite common throughout the universe.
But, if we send now a bunch of colonists there, who will bring lots and lots of organic material from Earth, we might spoil Mars to a degree where we cannot study this anymore, loosing a very unique opportunity.
Given the case there is still life around, wouldn't it be best to first study it, before building houses, schools and hospitals next to it?
And then there is another ethical consideration that needs to be taken into account:
Sending colonists to space with current technologists would use up significant amounts of terrestrial resources. Sending just 30000 colonists to Mars would already use up all the remaining mineral oil reserves on Earth, not to mention the metals, materials, supplies, etc shipped with the settlers. In order to send these few privileged people to Mars, the rest of humanity will have to sacrifice their lifestyle, their future and their environment. Is that ethical?
  • Do humans really deserve another planet to potentially ruin, or even sustainably terraform, if we cannot even figure out how to sustainably balance our own home world?
--> If we could terraform Mars, why not first terraform Earth? Reverse the effects of climate change, stop and reverse desertification. Earth is better studied than Mars, but as long as here high-ranked people make money with pollution and deny scientific facts, nothing will happen for the better. The money that Musk wants to spend on the colonisation could as well be spent to cover parts of the Earth's desert areas with solar power plants, providing humanity with CO2-free energy. That would benefit more people.
Also, terraforming Mars will not be sustainable. Mars is loosing its atmosphere, because of the lack of a global magnetic field. it might become a home for a while, but thinking into the far future, Mars will be back to where it is now.
Plus, how do we know we can potentially manage to create stable living conditions on Mars, when we are all about destabilising every environment we enter?
  • One might ask why doesn't Elon use his genius to create new technologies that will advance the human race by solving some of the Earth's worst problems?
  • Has he simply given up on this planet and does he therefore want a clean slate to build up from?
--> Maybe because it is easier messing up something new, rather than fixing something old?
  • Does Elon think that technological advancements resulting from the drive to become a spacefaring civilization (i.e. propellant production via. CO2 sequestration powered by 100% solar energy systems) will eventually rebound to help the Earth?
--> Musk's rockets use RP1 (refined kerosine) like all other rockets, and as long as this remains the cheapest fuel, nothing will change. Rockets are basically 95% fuel that is burnt. Using synthetical fuels is a huge cost factor. And especially since the CO2-concentrations (despite being high enough to significantly influence the climate) in the atmosphere are too low for economical use, I do not see any of this happening any time soon.
  • Must we start colonizing Mars now (i.e. beginning in the year 2022) like Elon's timeline suggests? Potentially, if we wait too long, technologies to reverse climate change on Earth may not have advanced enough without the excitement of being spacefaring...
--> No. We need to politically, economically and ecologically get our shit together first. We need to all reduce our negative imprint on the environment on Earth, foster international collaboration not wars, fear or hate, we need to change our thinking not towards maximising the monetary output, but in maximising our own happiness and humanity towards others.
Also, we should (must) explore Mars first. The right step is to first send a small groups of astronauts to carefully study Mars (and come back) over an extended period of time (~20 years) to really answer all our open scientific questions, before we can even think of inevitably spoiling the pristinity of the planet.
==> this would be the right way, and would avoid many of the mistakes that human explorers on Earth have done in the past (i.e. settling at their first arrival to a new place)
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Although its a very basic question but i think it must be discussed in forum like this, that before we start studying any property like electrical, optical, thermo-mechanical etc. of any sample, what must be kept in mind regarding material characterization e.g.
Electrical and Magnetic Techniques
Mechanical Testing
Thermal Techniques
Microscopy
Macroscopic Observation
Microscopic Observation
Diffraction Techniques
Spectroscopic Techniques etc.
Like If one is studying electrical properties than what characterization techniques like Scanning Electron Spectroscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), FTIR, XRD, EDS, EDXA, EDXMA, XPS, etc. one must have to go through ?
and similarly for other properties......?
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Theoretically you are right, but you can imagine that this is a never ending story and very expensive if you really plan to characterize your material with all the proposed techniques. It is like in life: you cannot marry all women in order to test which is the best one for you.
Practically, we are looking for simple correlations between properties. If mechanical test are required one assumes that the initial microstructure is possibly necessary to characterize before. But already this "simple" work is not that simple since you need to define which feature of the mircrostructure you prefer. Grain size? Grain shape? Phase distribution? Defect structure? Element distribution? Grain boundaries? 2D? 3D? Sometimes, you even do not find a correlation which does not mean that there is no. It only shows that the selected features (or combinations of them) have not yet been considered or investigated. Since you cannot find something which you do not know yet (only after testing you know at least one property variation) you can later look for some specific correlations.
Of course, some standard procedures are always recommended: visual inspection in the scale you expect some reactions. This can be already done by a light microscopic investigation, it can also cause some TEM work, although you have to consider the statistical relevance of each of these techniques. If you think, XRD gives you some initial information just do it. Mostly, these investigations are required to confirm that the initial state is as expected or required for this investigation. The grain size for XRD, the surface preparation for EBSD, the specimen selection for TEM. You can only try to prevent any repetition of experiments since you forgot to prepare the investigated sample properly. This is especially important for all later investigations. Which kind of sample (preparation) quality do they need? Some of them you cannot do later since you possibly affect your sample improperly so that the measurements can be done but do not show the quality of results you are expecting.
In other words, I do not think there is a standard procedure for all. You can or have to define one for your specific applications. This is clear! Otherwise, no experiment can be seriously compared with another. This is already difficult enough since you cannot change this standard procedure in the middle of your tests. Otherwise you ave to repeat everything.
Do what is necessary, and not what is possible!
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Consider that she is not intrested in things like science boundries and nonfunctional simulations  also she lives in a third world country ; it means no good job opportunity for who just has a bachelore degree.
Not a medical science fan 
A fan of every functional issue
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Options can be broadened and employability can increase by learning more skills and obtaining qualifications that are interesting for you. The main thing is to have grit, passion and persistent toward learning and continually getting better. if someone with Ba degree has the persistent and momentum in life, regardless of where she/he lives the person can achieve what she/he likes. find what is interesting for you and follow it with passion. 
Good luck
Amin
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In order to successfully teach young students as future engineers, we should, in my view, recognize as precisely as possible their expectations, their hopes and their level of knowledge about the role of the engineer in society at the start of the learning process.
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i think that the cuban young people have a distorsional decide criterial becaurse you can not find information of all engineers
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Problems concerned with recognizing, identifying, analyzing or assessing human needs are investigated by many authors in various approaches. The needs are seen as a problem of social sciences (considering human needs as something that is inextricably linked with the human existence and action). The needs are considered in economy (as one of key engine of market development). The needs are also important factor of engineering activities. The ideas like "Assessment of Needs" are also seen in medical publications (needs of patients). Since a time when I try to implement to scientific debate the idea of "Engineering of Needs", the question concerning the ethical dimension of needs is - on one hand - seen as really important, but - on the other hand - still open.
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Dear Jan,
It is good that you have raised the point of needs, ethics and business. My view below stems from an ongoing organic work of mine about the 'Humane model of business'.
Human needs to be understood as a coexistence of 'material' and 'consciousness'. There can be different names for these two as per the different philosophies, ideologies, religions, beliefs, etc. The needs of both 'material' and 'consciousness' are to be identified. Nagraj (2011) suggests that the needs of the 'material' are limited and temporary, while those of 'consciousness' are unlimited and continuous. In order to achieve the ultimate human goal of 'continuous happiness', both these needs need to be addressed. Businesses have to appreciate the consumer as a human. Once they can think on these lines, there is some possibility for 'holistic value' to be generated (Sharma and Mahendru, 2017). Holistic value addition makes sure that there is value being added to the individuals, families, society and nature. 
These are parts of my limited knowledge about it. We can always discuss it further.
Regards,
Gagan
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How and wich softwares be used to learn Partial Differential Equations; Differential and Integral Calculus and 
Differential Equations in Engineering University and Polytechnic Institutes? 
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Dear Sergio, for teaching Differential and Integral Calculus I suggest James Stewart's Calculus series; for Differential Equations W. Boyce and R. DiPrima, Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems; as software, I use Mathematica, but Matlab and Scilab are equally ok.  Gianluca
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There are pedagogical tendencies to teach applied physics in engineering careers
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Having graduated in engineering physics and also obtained a graduate certificate in teaching science, I think the subject is of interest for me.
I think linking with practice is essential for engineers. Go to the essential and never rush materials, listening to student and asking question. Providing clear practical demonstration with analogies.
Also this could help
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I am working on gasification, by adding K2co3 to char, when i completed by run, i found that crucible was stuck to balance arm of netzsch tga system. when i applied little force, crucible was removed, but the ash as there on platinum surface ( balance arm of tga, on which crucible rests.) i discuused with service engineer, he asked to heat it in oxygen medium, so i heated till 950 degree, but that white colored ash was now black. what should i do to remove that. 
Please help. 
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thanks Carlos. 
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I will be third-year chemical engineering student and want to continue my career as a biomedical engineer. I'm willing to discover brain mysteries in future and for now, I need your advice for choosing major difficulty in that area to work on.
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Hi,
There are plenty of things you can do in Biomedical Engineering. To begin with there is Tissue Engineering which you can do plenty of things such as working on Bioreactors, polymeric hydrogel, tissue engineering scaffolds, cell mechanics, cell modeling, cell membrane modeling, cell membrane dynamics. If you are interested in modeling you can also work on Finite element modeling or even experimental study of the cardiovascular systems (Biofluid mechanics).
There is also a relatively new field of microfluidics and design of organs on a chip to increase the pace of the drug discovery and testing.
These are the beginning, as a chemical engineer you can do plenty of work in the field of biomedical Engineering.
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Hello, 
I am student from Cummins College of Engineering for Women, Pune. I am working on Sarcasm Detection in Hindi too. I am using a deep learning architecture though, if you are using deep learning too do let me know.
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Thanks for showing interest in our article. No, I haven't used any machine learning algorithm so far. Just trying to formulate a pattern for Hindi tweets to identify sarcasm. We used Hindi news as context to identify sarcasm in Hindi tweets. The availability of sarcastic data is not available for Hindi, so its difficult to trained machine learning model for sarcasm detection. 
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Hello,
I use a commercially available real-time PCR kit for poultry virus detection. 
I have used this kit for some preliminary experiments but need the primer sequences for further research.
Is it possible to reverse engineer this kit to get the above. Can the primer master mix be purified to extract the oligos so that they could be sequenced via Sanger.
Is the above possible? Any suggestions for processing and method development.
Thanks,
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Further to Alexanders suggestion, I would just submit the sequence obtained to any standard primer/probe generating program.  If the kit was based on an optimised primer/probe set this will most likely have been generated automatically in the first instance so resubmitting the sequence should yield similar results.
Alternatively, you could just design your own primer/probe sets.
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I have heard in several media that the next great revolution will be that of Artificial Intelligence. And I agree. Nowdays, the problem of building software efficiently is in somehow solved. Today's universities should be anticipating to that inevitable, but necessary, fact. Specializations at the postgraduate level are not enough. There are AI issues that need to be addressed in more detail.
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This topic is very close to many disciplines including:
  1. Mechanical engineering.
  2. Electrical engineering
  3. Control engineering
  4. Information technology
  5. Other supporting departments.
So I strongly recommend to create and establish such important specialty, in return to your impressive question, such an engineer must be initiative, motivative, having excellent basis in mathematics, physics, and interested in computer programing, ...etc.
Regards, Emad
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Design of experiment.
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If you go by full factorial design then you would have to conduct 9765625 tests/runs. In fractional factorial design, if you want to study the factor effects only (i.e., 10 factors at 5 levels ) then you would have to conduct atleast 41 trials/tests.
However, in the Taguchi standard designs there is no orthogonal array which can allow you to study 10 factors at 5 levels. You can study a maximum of 6 factors at 5 levels in L25 orthogonal array. The next available orthogonal array is L50 but it is a mixed orthogonal array allowing to study one 2-level  factor and 11 5-level factors.
I think you should reformulate your problem or make use of some other methodology for designing the experiments.
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I am interested in reading some literatures on the Bandgap Engineering of BTO/bottom electrode/GSO (or any substrate), could someone provide me some links of interesting papers on the same?
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Geoscientists, Engineers
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Wikipedia has a good summary of the available remediation techniques:
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If we can create a DNA computer by using DNA can we then, further use this DNA to implement Quantum Computing in this DNA Computer by using/applying Quantum Physics/Mechanics phenomena that is related to DNA? In other words - Can we create a Hybrid DNA computer that uses both DNA Computing (for storage etc.) and Quantum Computing (for speed etc.) that switches between a Quantum or Optical Quantum Computer mode and DNA Computing mode by the use/application of - "Artificial Intelligence/Neural System technology/algorithms" or/and by other way(s)?
In addition to the above - We know that through DNA/Molecular Computing we can create DNA Robots which are at a very small scale, then considering the above, can we also create Quantum Robot which is actually a DNA Robot that switches to become a Quantum Robot just like DNA Computer Switches to become a Quantum Computer in the manner that has been explained above?
In short - Can we research in DNA Nanotechnology to create a Hybrid Computer which can act, both as a DNA Computer and a Quantum Computer and can also be programmed to assemble itself as a Robot which acts both as a DNA Robot and a Quantum Robot?
* If one can create such a Hybrid System, then, can it be done through DNA/Molecular Programming OR DNA Nanotechnology?
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Dear Parikshit Puri
If it is possible to have a computer based on DNA. There are scientific evidences and technological developments that I present below:
  • Since the discovery of the DNA structure by Watson and Crick in 1953. Based on the report by James Watson in his book "Molecular Biology of the Gen", scientist Leonard Adleman of the University of Southern California in 1994 came to the conclusion that with DNA could solve complex mathematical problems, because its molecular structure in genes, is very similar in its operation to a hard disk that stores information.
  • These DNA-based computers do not yet exist and can not be obtained in microcomputer and electronics stores, although theoretically, "nanochemistry" can be built at nanomolecular level, which could perform all functions of computation and information handling, such as do the current computers based on Silicon Chips, whose ability to be smaller and smaller is reaching its limit, according to Moore's Law (the number of transistors in a microprocessor doubles every 18 months, in the year 2020 or 2030 we will measure circuits at atomic scale).
  • In analogy, it is also known that the way DNA handles genetic information is similar to how a quantum computer would function. At the moment there are some limitations that are being solved, such as the development of "Logical Gates of DNA Biochip" necessary. These gates convert the binary code into motion through the computer in a series of signals that the computer uses to perform operations.
  • An important technological advance in this respect was carried out with the manufacture at nanomeric level, with the manufacture of nanohilos based on the DNA structure and manufactured with Gold, which experimentally conduct the electrical impulses in a similar way to the Chips de Silicon; But with the advantage of having a much smaller size, to be superconductors and because of their nanometric size, the ability to gather in a smaller physical space, large quantity of these Chips, with the consequent gain in the computation capacity in volume of information And processing speed.
  • Due to scientific evidence and current technological advances, it seems to me that before the development of quantum computers, it will be more feasible to manufacture a computer with Nano-size Chips based on the structure of DNA; Probably the next step is the creation of a "Biochip" of DNA, prior to the full development of Quantum Computers for personal use.
regards
Jose Luis
Estimado Parikshit Puri
Si es posible tener una computadora basada en el ADN. Hay evidencias científicas y desarrollos tecnológicos que presento a continuación:
  • Desde el descubrimiento de la estructura del ADN por Watson y Crick en 1953. Con base en el informe de James Watson en su libro "Biología Molecular del Gen", el científico Leonard Adleman de la Universidad del Sur de California, en 1994, llegó a la conclusión que con el ADN se podrían resolver problemas matemáticos complejos, pues su estructura molecular en los genes, es muy similar en su funcionamiento a un disco duro que almacena información.
  • Estas computadoras basadas en el ADN, todavía no existen ni se pueden conseguir en las tiendas de microcomputadoras y electrónica, aunque teóricamente, se pueden construir "Biochips" a nivel nanomolecular, que podrían desarrollar todas las funciones de cómputo y manejo de la información, como lo hacen las computadoras actuales basadas en los Chips de Silicio, cuya capacidad de ser cada vez más pequeños está llegando a su límite, de acuerdo con la Ley de Moore (el número de transistores en un microprocesador se duplica cada 18 meses, en el año 2020 o 2030 mediremos circuitos a escala atómica). 
  • En analogía, también se sabe que la forma como el ADN maneja la información genética es similar a como funcionaría una computadora cuántica. Por el momento existen existen algunas limitaciones que cada vez se van solucionando, como el desarrollo de "Puertas lógicas del Biochip de ADN" necesarias. Estas puertas convierten el código binario en movimiento a través de la computadora en una serie de señales que la computadora utiliza para realizar operaciones.
  • Un avance tecnológico importante al respecto, se llevó a cabo con la fabricación a nivel nanomérico de nanohilos basados en la estructura de ADN y elaborados con Oro, los cuales en forma experimental conducen los impulsos eléctricos en forma similar a los Chips de Silicio; pero con la ventaja de tener un tamaño mucho más pequeño, ser superconductores y por su tamaño nanométrico, la capacidad de reunir en un espacio físico más pequeño, gran cantidad de estos Chips, con la consiguiente ganancia en la capacidad de cómputo en volumen de información y velocidad de procesamiento.
  • Por las evidencias científicas y avance tecnológico actual, me parece que antes de que se desarrollen las computadoras cuánticas, será más factible la fabricación de una computadora con Chips de tamaño Nano con base en la estructura del ADN. Probablemente el siguiente paso, sea la creación de un "Biochip" de ADN, previo al desarrollo pleno de las Computadoras Cuánticas para uso personal.
Saludos
José Luis
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There are circumstances when acting upon expert judgement is desirable; for example:
1. In an emergency situation where a quick decision is vital.
2. Where an innovation is being made that has not previously been proven.     
However, there are other circumstances where it is better to only act upon proven knowledge; such as:
1. When making the wrong decision could be disastrous, and time is on your side.  
2. Where an innovation would only work if based on scientific principals.  
What are your experiences?  When to act on judgement and when to act on knowledge?  
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'Expert Judgement' in an academic forum such as this is quite different  from a 'Technical Expert' as often defined by Industry, where the expectatiosn are closer to 'absolute certainty via  peer review & peers obtaining repeatedly the same results' - Hence the Expert opinion is rarely obtained early in a development cycle nor quickly or cheaply
If you are looking in Industry- the technical expert usually arrives in the position based upon experiance & trast of the  other less technical management, they look to give advice to collegues based on past experience either directly or indirectly pertinent, on a topic that (s)he cannot ask others to duplicate & validate. Often it is to give the company a technical advantage over competitors - eg under time constraints.
Hence with internal testing possible as a baseline, an 'Expert' in industry will give what is often refered to as an 'Engineering Guesstimate' on how to move forward into an unknown or uncertain area of applied science . Based on gut feeling  which has been inspired by past experience, re-assured by internal testing as time permits & possibly boyed up by talking obliquely to peers (so as not to give the advantage to them)
I like the way the question is posed and often the differeniator is 'Time to market'; where academic's often have a much longer time frame available than industrial engineers. These engineers know that peers in competitor companies will be equally inspired by the same things as them to develop the product quickly and so have to give a best Engineering opinion based on the data available :  experience usually take them closer to right answer than others first time.
 An Engineer risking trying to share on an Academic forum. 
 
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Acoustic is macroscopic description of the movement of atoms and molecules
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Well, I guess you should frame your question more precisely. However, I will try to answer your question to the best of my understanding. The temperature T would mean energy of the order of kT where k is the Boltzman's constant. 
This energy should be of the same order as the vibration energy (VE) state of the air molecules. Only then, the heat energy would be able to trigger a vibrational rearrangement of the air molecules. And then using simple Maths you could obtain T = VE / k.
For example, typical frequencies of molecular vibrations range from less than 1013 to approximately 1014 Hz, corresponding to wavenumbers of approximately 300 to 3000 cm-1 .
The VE mode of C2 H4 is 826 cm-1  and of N2  is 2331 cm-1. And, VE mode of air molecules, i..e, Oxygen O2 , is 1556 cm-1 .
I assume you know how to convert these numbers into units of energy, Joules?
Some excellent literature on these topics are: 
1) Bhatia, Ultrasonic Absorption: An Introduction to the theory of sound absorption and dispersion in gases, liquids and solids, Dover Publications, New York, 1967.
2) Markham, “Absorption of sounds in fluids”, Rev. Mod. Phys., 1951.
3) Baueriot, “Influences of transport mechanisms on sound propagation in gases”, Adv. Mol. Relax. Proc., 1972.
Hope that helps.
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What are the factors to consider to make an engineering department of a private university can be made profitable. What are the percentages of income should be used for up gradation and improvement of the department further? What percentage of income should be used as salary and other expenditure? What should be the recurring budget in every semester/year?
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Dear Muhibu,
an engineering department should be profitable deither if you have projects those you can solve to industry (companies) or you have common (joint-venture) projects with some companies from the real industry.
How much money you will invest in development, how much money you will invest in education of your students/experts, how much money you will invest in marketing (yes: invest in marketing because "marketing costs in economical theory" are not costs but investment if you invest money in right way) it is upt to you. You must develop your own model but let's say that minimum investment in further education of your experts mustn't be less than 8 % of your income (12% should be optimum), marketing inestment shold be at least 5% (10% optimum)... salaries must be less than 30-35%... so you will have appx 25 - 40 % of income to invest in new delopment, technologies, new researches, etc... and 10% will be your revenue...
It is very hard to create a business model in this short review but I do hope you can get "a clear picture" what I should advice to you...
Best regards,
Igor    
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Modelling software
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yeah same as above and both the software have their own area of application although they serves the same purpose.
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Hello friends, i am a student and working on my college project. My problem is that i want to open documents like doc, docx, pdf, ppt, jpg, gif, txt, tiff, xls, dbm and some office documents on the browser which are located at my server. it means I dont want to download the document first to see the matter in it. All these document should be opened inside my web browser directly.
I know about google document viewer which provides cloud services for that, but their are some limitations for their use. there are many other cloude services , but they are not fullfilling my need. Is there any api that can help me? By the way my project is in J2EE and server is tomcat, database is Mysql. and my plateform is Windows 7.
If i am able to edit those document from client side , then it will be an extra help to my project.
If you have any matter that can help me then please send me it on [email protected].
Thanx in advance!!!
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Did you get a solution for this Anil ?
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How many different approaches are possible for segmentation and which one do you  recommend for Echocardiogram?
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I would suggest to use malladi-sethian segmentation, it is very useful in echo images, and it is also easy to find already implemented in a matlab script
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Dear Colleagues,
Thank you very much for opinion in advance. 
Regards, Shafagat
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Dear @Emad Kamil Hussein, 
Thank you very much for comments.
language engineering - any of a variety of computing procedures to human language, including speech recognition, machine translation, parsers, and other natural language applications.
language engineering  - the development of computer systems that process language for use in industry.
Regards, Shafagat
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Is there anyone can help me??I need some guidances about making web with PHP.
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I'm free to help you. Tell me what you need.
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I have electrode arrays and I would like to measure multichannel with SI 1260. Are you working with this machine? If you know, please help me.
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also for various techniques you can refer the book matrix preconditioning .... ..... by K E Chen, cambridge university press 
best
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Hi everbody ,
I hope so that any one can help me to solve my problem
I am master student and i faced a problem in ANN
I am using nntool of matlab 7.8.0
the main problem is that the network training stop before reaching the minimum error or finishing the maximum number of epochs
I do not know why ??
I have another question about the training function
what is the best training function of (eed forward back propagation ANN)
thanks
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Use MATLAB 13 and above, you can train easily,
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Hello. I'm from Ukraine. I write articles of wavelet processing of the ECG signal. Advise me the journal where I can publish my article without the membership fee (free). Thank you.
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Quality publication is vital : http://ijaridea.com/Knowledge-Empowerment
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Any ideas on features/factors that could make cooperative transactive control more attractive to smartgrid an local community energy markets ?
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Hi Gerro,
Don't know if this helps, but transactive energy management for biogas as a residential fuel is becoming somewhat common in Indian villages.
Transactive energy management with a focus on electricity from a microgrid is still uncommon. Maybe it will gather momentum in the future, because experience from the biogas ventures have been quite good.
Cheers !
-Sanjay
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Often academics talk about engineering judgement and ask their students to use their engineering judgement in arriving at a solution. But how do you understand it? measure it? learn and transfer it?
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I think engineering judgement as with any other judgement is dependent on individual's intuition, intuition on the other hand comes with depth and breadth of understanding and experience of a subject matter of which judgement is expected. 
What we can teach in university that help student to develop better judgement and intuition are the relevant soft skills such as team work, leadership and critical thinking skills. The only way this can be achieved is through Problem Based Learning/ Activity Led Learning. In Coventry University we deliver soft skills through Integrated projects where students work in inter-disciplinary and cross-disciplinary teams to solve some engineering problems. 
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I mean for example rehabilitation machines specially made to overcome learning disabilities and the like. Or to improve the teaching - learning process, as it was the Teaching Machine made by B.F. Skinner. Mechanical, electrical or electronic devices, but not computer based ones.
Many thanks.
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Consider Abacus if some one knows how to utilize it then it will become mental exercise for them to develop mathematical abilities. 
Secondly use vending machines where we put coins and we get candies it will also enhance their mathematical ability.
There are lots of example (beispiel)  in the present world i mentioned few.
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i need help. i make research about the history of Cryptography specific in ware
and i can't find any information
plz!!! help
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The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography Paperback – August 29, 2000
by Simon Singh (Author)
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Hello all,
I would like to discuss a best possible method for consumer behavior modelling.
For example, if a consumer goes same super market all the time, i would like to model the purchasing behavior so that the model can  accurately predict the goods he may buy next time he visits the store.
The problem may be approached  from the patter recognition point of view also.
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Dear Chittesh,
This is a good question with many possible answers and points-of-view.   It seems that it is often the case that we learn about human behaviour indirectly by considering how humans interact with other humans, the environment and machines.   In short, mathematical views of human behaviour often focus on stimulus-response modelling.
Mathematical models of human behaviour have been recently been studied in the context of epidemics in
P. Poletti, Human behaviour in epidemic modelling, Ph.D. thesis, University of Trento, 2010:
Human behaviour is modelled by Poletti in terms of two mutually influencing phenomena: epidemic transitions and behavioural changes in the population of susceptible individuals (see Section 2.2, starting on page 16).
Modelling human-computer (device) interaction is the focus of
P. Eslambolchilar, Making sense of interaction using a model-based approach, Ph.D. thesis, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 2006:
See, for example, the probabilistic framework of a model-based behaviour system in Fig. 6.13, starting on page 182.
A bit less mathematical but still very interesting model of human behaviour in terms of human-made music is given in
A. Tidemann, A groovy virtual drummer: Learning by imitation using a self-organizing connectionist architecture, Ph.D. thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 209:
For an overview of the Tidemann's approach to model and imitate human musical expressiveness, see Fig. 1.1, p. 5.
This thesis introduces the SHEILA architecture in terms of human drum-playing patterns with an accompanying melody (see Section 3, Architectuure, page 106 in the pdf file but unnumbered in the thesis).
(by James F Peters)
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Evaluation of islamic Entrepreneurship characteristics among Engineering University students?
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Dear Farhan,
Your question is 'Evaluation of Islamic Entrepreneurship characteristics among Engineering University students?
It is better to develop an scale to evaluate the characteristics of Islamic entrepreneur.  Carlnd scale is out of date which considers only three dimensions: innovation, risk taking and achievement motivation. These dimensions are common for entrepreneurs in countries where Islamic tradiations are not practiced and open market policies have been respected highly.
In contrast, Islamic culture is more conservative and has some financial laws specifically for Islamic individuals (e.g., Shariaah).
Then it is necessary to develop different scale specifically to Islamic students who may or may not as innovative or risk taking as most of non-muslim entrepreneurs.
Upananda
Sri Lanka
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I prepared the PMMA and PVDF thinfilm using Solution casting process. Any one suggest how to use these films in engineering applcaition?
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There are a lot of industrial applications of PMMA and other polymeric coatings. For more details, please go through below links. These articles might be helpful. 
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While buying an automobile for self, is the knowledge of technical specification like [email protected], Torque, power to weight ratio matter? Do consumers really give any importance to these tech specs?
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Dear Azhar, consumers will probably always consider some technical specifications when purchasing a vehicle, because these specifications may play a role in the performance of the vehicle.  Consumers probably do not only purchase vehicles based on considerations such as a brand name. Consumers, however, may differ in various aspects, for instance their involvement in the purchase and how knowledgeable they are about particular technical specifications. It also depends on what purpose the vehicle is purchased for.  I embed the link to a brief Google Scholar search that relates to your question. Good luck! ツ
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Dear all,
for statistical reasons I would like to have a set of data from double slit experiment. Yet browsing the web I could not find anything. Does anyone of you know a website or ressource where one can download this set of data?
Thank you for your help.
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There's no difficulty in simulating the double slit diffraction pattern, to any precision, whether in the Fraunhofer approximation, the Kirchhoff formulation-in classical electrodynamics-or by solving the problem in quantum mechanics. And it's a standard lab experiment in wave optics.
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How can Oil analysis be linked up with the vibration analysis?
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you can monitor  the vibration spectrum with new oil and oil with run over time and compare the change in frequencies of spectrum
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Hello everyone~!
The main question is information regarding to plane failure of the stereographic projection.
According to book(rock slope engineering, hoek and bray 1981), it clearly says “The plane on which sliding occurs must strike parallel or nearly parallel (whining approximately ±20°) to the slope face.”
 I would like to know why “approximately ±20°”, Or reference ?
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To see the answer I sugest to draw the great circles for some slope and failure plane to see the effect on the drawing. For example, try to plot the following planes: slope plane with dip amount of 90/60 and failure plane with dip amount 90/30. Then if you do a variation of slope planes in a range of 110/60 or 70/60you will see the effect because slope and failure planes are not any more "parallel". So, if you have wider range than +_20 degres and some combination with other joint set then the other mode of failure (wedge failure) is more posinle than the plane failure.
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Can anyone point me to the best papers describing the format and use of 'User Stories' during requirements analysis/engineering?
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we define a wave vector as a complex number, when EMW traverses in conducting media whereas a real number when it traverses in free space.so I want to know the physical meaning of complex number. a complex number contains a real and a imaginary part! then, how propagation can be imaginary?
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First of all, you need to know why imaginary numbers are used to represent REAL phenomena!
Imaginary representation of waves make their MATHEMATICAL solution via Maxwell's equations much easier.
Second, you need to know how wave vector is connected to the wave propagation and instantaneous field intensity.
Waves propagates in 1D can be represented by one of the two equivalent forms:
E(x,t) = |E| cos (k.x-w.t) = REAL{ |E| exp (i (k.x-w.t))}
where
i is the square root of -1 | k is the wave vector
If k and |E| are purely real, then the wave will be simply a travelling sin wave with CONSTANT amplitude.
On the other hand, when has an imaginary part (k=k'+i.k"), this means that the wave amplitude decays while wave propagates in the x direction. HOW?
let's substitute by k=k'+i.k" in the wave representation.
E(x,t) = REAL{ |E| exp (i ((k'+i.k").x-w.t))} 
lets decompose the exp to two multiplied parts;
E(x,t) = REAL{ |E| *exp (-k"x-w.t) * exp (i (k'.x-w.t))} 
Now you have a real part multiplied by |E|, which is  exp (-k"x-w.t)
if |E| is also real, then we can do the following:
E(x,t) = |E| *exp (-k"x-w.t) * REAL{ exp (i (k'.x-w.t))} 
The term outside the REAL bracket is the wave amplitude, which is obviously decaying as you travel in the x direction. The other part inside the REAL bracket is representing a pure sinusoidal oscillation.
I hope this answered your question. 
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Is it possible to write arbitrary data as output to a SAP model using OAPI (or some other method) and then display those data graphically within SAP? I know it is possible in other dedicated pre- and post-processors (e.g. FEMAP), but I am working with an existing model and the rest of the team is fixed on using SAP for analysis and post-processing.
Essentially we have a number of offline calculations and we would like to display the results of these calculations graphically on the SAP model. Any suggestions would be appreciated.
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Thanks very much!
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Greetings.
I am trying to find examples of systems of linear higehr order differential equations.
That is, systems in the form;
Α Χ'''(t) +B X''(t) + C X'(t) + DX(t) = U(t)
or
Α Χ'''(t) +B X''(t) + C X'(t) + DX(t) = 0
where A, B, C, D are matrices and X(t) is a vector variable, i.e.
Χ(t)=[v1(t) v2(t) v3(t) ]T
Many such systems arise in mechanical engineering, like spring-mass oscillation systems, spring-mass systems with dampers etc, but all of them are 2nd order differential equations.
Can anybody help me find systems of order 3 or higher? The free parameter t does not necessarily have to be time.  They can be engineering, biological, economic systems, whatever!
Please provide references too.
Thank you
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Look for dynamics of beam or plate, e.g. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. You will get many more interesting fourth order equations. 
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What are the parameters used to identify the electrical nonlinear load?
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linear loads are those when subjected to sinusoidal voltage, they will draw sinusoidal current..(example RLC circuits).
nonlinear loads are those when subjected to sinusoidal voltage they will draw a non sinusoidal current (example PE switches, diodes SCR..etc)
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According to the algo "the initial soil on each path (edge) is denoted by the constant InitSoil such that the soil of the path between every two nodes i and j is set by soil(i, j) = InitSoil."
If the soil is same at every edge, won't the probability of a water drop to move from the ith node to any other node be same?
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Hi,
I have started working on Particle Swarm Optimization for the channel equalization, actually we want to modify its algorithm which was based on variable constriction factor (PSO-VCF), here is the title of this paper"A new modified particle swarm optimization algorithm for adaptive equalization", as per my advisor that modification will certainly improve it, so i am looking for any idea, if any one have worked on it, your help will be appreciated.
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I have dataset of author and their coauthor. I made a graph of this dataset. It contains a huge no. of cycles. I have tried JGRAPHT java API to find these cycles by using Johnsons Algorithm but failed on real data of about 577 publications. It is working on quite small set of authors and coauthors data.
If anybody know some good API in java or in any language or suggest me some other good algorithm for the said purpose.
or
Can I use community detection algorithm for this purpose or strongly connected component??
Please guide..
Thanks in advance..
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A straight forward brute force solution
would be to go through all permutations
of vertices and check whether they
form a cycle.
Uniqueness can be achieved by sorting
the circles. Suppose each vertex has
a unique  number. So each cycle has a
vertex with a lowest number, and its
neighbor with the lower number
defines a direction - to create
a string from all vertex numbers
in the cycle.
Regards,
Joachim
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Please contribute, comment, validate, show value, enhance and vote.
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Feb. 6th 2016
I was alarmed to learn about the Natick Project given my earlier project proposal in August 2012. In that year, I submitted the very same idea of underwater data centers through the Mozilla Ignite contest. I had hoped that such an  idea would benefit human kind and the planet. But also I had hoped that by having this idea in the public sphere, corporations would be prevented from patenting the idea. As you can see, the Natick Research Project website describes the problems in a very similar manner as I had. (See https://www.mozillaignite.org/ideas/169/)
The team admits to having thought of the idea well after I had published my idea. I have a difficult time imagining that Microsoft would not have done their due diligence in searching to see if others had previously expressed a similar idea. Indeed, had they done so, I imagine that my project would have been found.
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What are the applications of reducing Quadratic form to canonical form?
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From the canonical form we can easily determine the rank, determinant, trace, characteristic roots, nature of the associated matrix of the quadratic form.
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In main tier of my research, I review various techniques leading in faster execution of engineering and construction projects. I am asking this question to collect more insights about project fast tracking.
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You could also look at http://www.leanconstruction.org/
The Lean Construction Institute has some principles that help improve predictability.
Personally, I think "Fast Tracking" is a fantasy. The biggest problems are
1. On site safety. Lost time from accidents is the most costly error. In product development projects the most costly error is deferring quality checks until testing and approval.
2. Failure to consider potential risks and planning assumptions. If one considers planning assumptions as the major source of risk then some mitigation is possible. Dozens of projects are delayed because of erroneous assumptions about suppliers, soil checks, capability and capacity of subs and even obvious things like strength of new materials.
Invariably, fast tracking makes more assumptions than usual and hence encounters even more problems than usual.
In my personal view, the value of very high predictability far outweighs the value of faster completion because the inherent risk grows so much.
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Engineering mathematics
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An engineering problem can be reduced to a form [A]{x} = {y} and then to an eigenvalue problem [A]{V} = λ {V}, whose solution i.e. det(A - λ*I) = 0 gives you eigenvalues (λ) and eigenvectors {V}. What do eigenvalues and eigenvectors physically mean ????
In mathematical sense the system matrix [A] can be thought of as a transformation matrix whose effect varies with directions and is maximum in certain direction. These maxima are called eigenvalues and the corresponding directions are known as eigenvectors. Let us explain it with a couple of examples:
1.    A cantilever beam is given an initial deflection and then released. Its vibration is an eigenvalue problem and the eigenvalues are the natural frequencies of vibration and the eigenvectors are the mode shapes of the vibration.
2.   Google search is an eigenvalue problem. When you search a 'keyword'. Your search engine goes to millions of websites and an eigenvalue problem is formulated in which the system matrix, P is called Markov Transition Matrix. The eigenvalue problem is given as [P]{W} = 1 {W}. Since each P is probability value, the eigenvalue λ = 1. The Pij is the conditional probability that we are on the i-th webpage, given that we gave search at the j-th webpage. Pij for each webpage i in the web is calculated based on the incoming link from neighboring webpage j, Lij and number of outgoing links from the neighboring webpage, j, Nj . So equation for weight at webpage i becomes:
Wi = LijWj / Nj    =  Pij Wj    Where Pij = Lij / Nj and weight of j-th webpage, Wj.
Suppose our world wide web has only 3 webpages, Then our equations will be:
W1 = P11 W1 + P12 W2 + P13 W3
W2 = P21 W1 + P22 W2 + P23 W3
W3 = P31 W1 + P32 W2 + P33 W3
Which becomes {W}3x1 = [P]3x3 {W}3x1    =>   [P]3x3 {W}3x1 = λ {W}3x1 …… (1)
For this problem λ = 1 and let us say our solution for the eigenvalue problem (1) is {W}3x1 = {0.65, 0.5, 0.95}T, then since third value is the largest, means your web search will display the websites in following order: Third, First, Second.
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Dear RG friends:
In two weeks time, I am all set to conduct a technical session on Analysis.
I plan to deliver a long lecture on "Fixed Point Theorems". Of course, Banach fixed point theorem is useful to establish the local existence and uniqueness of solutions of ODEs, and contraction mapping ideas are also useful to develop some simple numerical methods for solving nonlinear equations. Are there any other interesting science / engineering applications?
Kindly let me know! Thank you for the kind help.
With best wishes,
Sundar
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As applications :   logic programming and fuzzy logic programming
Nash equilibrium and game theory.
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Really, the measurements of dq- axis inductances of the SynRM is more complex in case of including the magnetic saturation and iron loss.
In literature, there is several methods for measuring the dq-axis inductances of the SynRM.
If someone can suggest a simple laboratory method to measure the dq-axis inductances including the magnetic saturation and iron loss????????
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A suggestion is to use high-frequency signal injection. It is pretty effective to find the flux-current relations in the presence of saturation. The attached paper describes this for PMSMs, salient or not. We have done the same thing, with slight modifications, for SynRMs (which can be seen as very salient PMSMs without magnets). We don't handle iron losses, though (it doesn't seem to be essential, at least for control purposes).
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The White Paper on Transport (2011) has set as an objective to reach buy 2030 an essentially CO2 free urban freight distribution in major cities. What are in your opinion the most promising research alleys one should focus on to reach asuch an objective? Should we concentrate on technologY? Regulation? Stakeholder involvement? Innovative policy formulations? And who should we involve in the research? Why?
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Dear Edoardo
Good question. The issue is complex hence one does need to work on all factors.
I am working on this area since last two years and have exchanged ideas with various stakeholders on the feasibility of the proposed solutions. I started with a technology factor discussing how different stakeholders (including regulators) can work together to achieve the white paper goals of modal shift. For e.g. Internet based multimodal exchanges for consolidating road transport to rail to reduce CO2 emissions.
Please see an article I wrote on it. Does this answer your question? 
Best regards
Anuradha
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I need to solve the problem shown below, but I do not know what optimization libraries can solve this problem.
argmin Σi(xiTAxi-bxi) sub. to Ab=0
The optimization target is a 3x3 matrix A and a 3D vector b, given the 3D vectors xi where i=1,2,...,N. Clear view of the formula is attached.
I need a C/C++ optimization library, hopefully opensource, light and fast. If you have any idea, help me.
I would appreciate more if you let me know the related class or method in the library. Thank you!
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The problem is equivalent to the one obtained by replacing A by a _symmetric_ matrix S sub to b orthogonal to Sb. To see this, choose S as the symmetric part of A. Then x'Ax=x'Sx for any x (' means transpose) Putting R=A-S, Ab=0 translates to Sb=-Rb. In 3D, you can find for any antisymmetric R a vector r such that for any b we have Rb=r 'x' b ('x' vector product). Thus Sb must be orthogonal to b. The reformulation of the problem reduces dimensionality by three.
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In general, light is produced for household purpose with bulb, CFL, tube, LED etc from electrical power. There is a big portion of world that lives in dark after sun sets. These people do not want electrical power, they want light first.
Is it possible to create a pollution free light without electric power and without burning something. Light that is sufficient to illuminate a 12 x 12 feet hut without an electricity connection. Light that is very very cheap (not more than $1 per week and 8 hours per day)….Don’t tell solar or known things….suggest something wild…some new idea….innovative…no power only light….Just for the sake of discussion….
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In truth, Naveen asked:
"Is it possible to create a pollution free light without electric power and without burning something."
So the fire idea is out, for two reasons: it pollutes and it burns.
The not-so-original answer might be what's generally referred to as "energy harvesting," but then it might still violate the premise, if that harvested energy is used to generate electricity. Still, in principle, not much pollution there.
So a better answer is phosphorescence, where the material absorbs light when there's ambient light around it (during the day), and then slowly releases that light when the environment goes dark.
Bioluminscence might be another possibility, except that technically, it does pollute. After all, these organisms emit CO2, and to create lots of light, lots of CO2.
We need a material that has properties similar to phosphorescence, but that does not depend on strictly storing light. Something that can use other forms of energy and convert it to E = hv photons (that's nu, not vee). For instance:
Chemiluminescence.
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Static, dynamic, and transient analysis.
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 or more current one here:
... along with several others
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Today the vector generation process for IOs is manual. DA gets the specs from Engineering in the form of a truth table and builds on the truth table to create a vector file manually. Is there any way to automate this process?
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I don't understand what you call 'a vector file is' Could you explain?
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In engineering strain we are consdering total or intial cross section area while in true strain it is instantaneous one.soif we measure strain using strain gauge then is it a true or engineering strain?
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It is the engineering strain.
True strain = ln(1 + engineering strain) where ln designates the natural log.
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The height and collapse of this tower, in correlation with very long and unexpected  periods of spectra, recently published, is raising a number of questions about natural periods and modal forms of the said tower, as well as about the masonry strength. 
Thus, I am interested in some engineering assessments, if any.
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This is the presentation of that Professor on 2015 Nepal Earthquake- performance of Masonary Structures at the 12 North American Masonry conference, Denver, Colorado.
source: nicee.org
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The key strategy, facts and principal elements a train planner needs to consider when compiling a train plan with regards to the sectional running times, station dwell times, the layover times and the engineering, pathing and perfrmance allowance to bear in mind.
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I'm working on MMCs with Al2O3 reinforcing particles in Al matrix. In articles it is mentioned that for better wettability of Al2O3 with molten Al it's effective to add Mg powder. How can I avoid attaching powders at the nozzle tip which can block injection of powder?
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Are you adding Al2O3  particles or it is result of selective oxidation of melt?
Mg is pyrophoric and calls for safety - thus attaching of powders at the nozzle tip is a complimenration of its nature,
sure heat at nozzle tip can block injection of powder? so possible measures are:
  1. Avoid heat accumulation at tip
  2. Reduce wettability with and seek shear at tip
  3. Let the tip get cleared off with heat.
More options/ variations can be explored.  We can have lengthy discussion at appropriate time.
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The monomer I used was heptylamine.
I did for warming up the monomer by immersed the bottom flask in the water bath. I used the heating tape to warmed the SS piping as well and the SS piping had the heptylamine odor strongly.
However, it showed air plasma reaction (pink color) once turned on the RF power. Heptylamine seem doesn't flow into the chamber because it doesn't have any odour of Heptylamine inside the chamber.
How can I improve the system to gain more monomer flow into the chamber? Any methods to tighten the bottom flask to holds the stainless piping?(Figure 1)
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Hi Chen,
I'm afraid I'm not familiar with heptylamine plasma coatings however I do use other monomers such as acrylic acid. For amine coatings we use allylamine monomers.
Pink glow: If I get a bright pink glow I know I have a leak in my system (I don't use Argon). The last time this happened it was because my needle valve was broken so although I could close it to get a good vacuum, as soon as I opened it oxygen was leaking in.
Reactor leaks: We also conduct leak tests with our reactors by closing the valves either side of the reactor (both the needle valve and the valve between the reactor and the pump) and monitoring pressure changes inside the reactor. If the pressure increases quickly this is an indication that air is leaking into our reactor through a seal. I ensure I have a very good base pressure to minimise oxygen content in my 1,7-octadiene and allylamine coatings.  
Freeze thaw cycles: As Anton suggested above, to remove gas from liquid monomers we use multiple freeze thaw cycles using liquid nitrogen.
Heated reactor: For monomers requiring heating we have a heated reactor covered with an insulating jacket however we have a very different reactor design to yours (stainless steel T-piece) so I'm not sure if this is possible with your system.
Needle valves: Finally ensure you are using the correct needle valve, we use different valves for different monomers to achieve the correct pressure and flow.
Thanks,
Hannah
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Am trying to make an actuator using a stepper motor principles. I have already come up with the stator design and the rotor design using CATIA V5R19 therein attached. Am trying to come up with the coil configuration and circuit design and, I intend to use arduino micro-controller. I want to know how to wind the coils and how to connect them?